First Corinthians

 

1:1           called (Gk. “kletos” – means appointed to a position). 1

apostle (Gk. “apostolos” – means “one sent on a mission as an envoy. It later came to emphasize the idea of the person sent being the personal representative of the one sending him.” The term takes on a unique meaning or description when applied to the apostles of Jesus Christ. Acts 1:21, 22 give the qualifications of the Twelve as being: those who followed Jesus from the beginning of His public ministry through His ascension, and who were to be a witness of Jesus’ resurrection. The role and identity of the 12 was never transferred into institutional roles or offices. The 12 remain a unique group (e.g., Rev. 21:14), including that of Paul. The two key elements to being an apostle of Jesus Christ are that the person had witnessed the resurrected Jesus Christ (Acts 1:22) and had been personally sent/commissioned by Him (Mk. 3:14; Lk. 6:13; Matt. 28:18-20; Acts 1:8). In this context, an apostle of Jesus Christ takes on a distinctive/specific meaning. Paul meets both qualifications (Acts 9:3-5, 17, 27; 22:14; 26:13-18; 1 Cor. 9:1; 15:8; 1 Tim. 2:7). The apostles authenticated their appointment and/or position by Christ with the ability to perform miraculous signs (2 Cor. 12:12; Acts 2:42, 43; 5:12, 13). 9

Their job was to found the Church through evangelism (Eph. 2:20; Acts 1:8; 3:19; 6:4, 7; 1 Cor. 3:10), to teach doctrine (God’s will and ways) to new believers so as to guide them correctly (Acts 2:42; Eph. 4:11-13), and to authoritatively oversee and solve church problems (e.g., Acts 6:1-3; 11:1-4, 17, 18; 15:1-11; 1 Cor. 1:10, 11; 4:14, 19, 21; 5:4, 5; 2 Cor. 2:9; 7:8-11) since the NT had not been written yet, but the apostles were receiving revelations and instructions from God (Jn. 14:26; 16:13-15; Acts 10:10-15, 28; Gal. 1:11, 12; 2 Cor. 12:1). But with the completion of the NT by AD 95, the gift (Christ-ordained appointment) of apostle (1 Cor. 12:28, 29; Eph. 4:7, 11-13) ended, as it was no longer needed, nor did anyone thereafter meet the two key/main qualifications to be one (mentioned above). 11, 12

Others were called apostles in the NT (like Barnabas, Acts 14:14 and Andronicus and Junias, Rom. 16:7), but they are different from those specifically chosen by Christ Himself (Gal. 1:1, 15; 1 Tim. 1:1). These others are more like missionaries (who didn’t have the same authority as the 12 and Paul had, Acts 8:18, 19; 2 Cor. 13:10) who were sent as messengers by a church rather than by Christ Himself (e.g., 2 Cor. 8:23; Phil. 2:25). 9

Jesus (Gk. “ ‘Iesous” – means Jehovah is salvation/the Savior, Matt. 1:21). 10

Christ (Gk. “Christos” – means anointed 10, that is, consecrated/set apart for a sacred purpose 11. In Hebrew, it’s the word “Messiah”. The Old Testament portrays the Christ/Messiah as a king/Prince, Dan. 9:25, 26; 7:13, 14; Zech. 9:9, 10, who is both God Himself, Psa. 45:6, 7; Isa. 7:14 with Matt. 1:23; Isa. 9:6; Jer. 23:5, 6, and God’s Son, Psa. 2:7; 89:27; Mk. 14:61-64, but who is also a Servant, Isa. 42:1, and Redeemer/Savior, Isa. 53:1-12).

1:2           church (Gk. “ekklesia” – means “a called out assembly” and is used in the NT of God’s people viewed together as a new and whole community. It can encompass any number of believers, e.g., Rom. 16:5; Acts 5:11, 14; 11:21, 22, 26; 1 Cor. 16:19; Col. 4:15; Philemon 1:2). 6, 9

                sanctified (Gk. “hegiasmenous” – meaning “set apart by God as His possession” 1 and for His use/service 2, 5; set apart as holy to God 3). 6

                saints (Gk. “hagiois” – meaning “inwardly renewed and outwardly consecrated” 6; individually holy, Col. 1:12, or members of a spiritual community, Col. 3:12 8;  all professing members of the Church 3).

                calling (effectual calling/appointment by the Holy Spirit 6; being summoned and drawn by God to salvation, Jn. 6:44, 65; 2 Thes. 2:13; Rom. 8:29, 30; efficacious calling, effective-in-producing-the-desired-result summons to salvation 11).

                call upon the name of our Lord Jesus Christ (ellipsis – for aid as the Messiah 6; for salvation because of believing in Him, Rom. 10:13, 14; Acts 22:16 3; metonymy – Christians, Acts 9:14, 21 6; pleonasm, synecdoche, and idiom – to acknowledge as/worship the Lord Jesus Christ, Keil – Delitzsch, Commentary on the OT, vol. 1, p. 120; express faith in Jesus Christ for salvation 1).

1:3           grace (Gk. “charis” – the favor of God 4; favor 6; unmerited/gracious favor or benefit 9).

                peace (Gk. “eirene” – harmonious relations). 10

1:5           in everything you were enriched in Him (ellipsis – as members of Christ’s Church, these believers were in every respect richly endowed with the gifts of the Spirit). 6

                in all speech and all knowledge (specifically, in all the utterance gifts, like speaking in tongues/foreign languages unlearned by the speaker, interpretation of tongues, teaching 2; and all the knowledge gifts, like the word of knowledge 5, word of wisdom, distinguishing of spirits, prophecy, etc.; religious knowledge) 1, 6, 7

1:6           the testimony… confirmed in you (their acceptance of the preaching/witnessing of the gospel of Christ was evidenced in them by their speech and knowledge spiritual gifts).

1:7           gift (brachylogy – spiritual gift). 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

                the revelation (metonymy – the return). 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

1:8           confirm (Gk. “bebaiosei” – give guaranteed security to 2, 5).

                end (ellipsis – of the age till Jesus comes). 3, 6, 7, 8

                blameless (Gk. “anenkletous” – free from accusation because of being justified by God’s grace). 1, 2, 6

1:9           called (see 1:2). 6

                fellowship (Gk. “koinonian” – partnership or participation 7; a share in 2; intimate communion with 4; union and communion). 6

1:10         brethren (i.e., Christian brothers).

                name of (authority of).

all agree (Gk. “to auto legein”, idiom – adjust with a view to unity 2; be harmoniously unified 1; be unanimous 4).

                division (Gk. “schiameta” – alienation of feeling and party strife within the same church 5; unauthorized separation from the church rather than those which arise from hostile sects 6, false doctrine and false teachers).

                made complete (Gk. “katertismenoi” – restored to its rightful condition 5; metaphor – restored or set right those in error 6).

                mind (Gk. “nous” – beliefs 3 or frame/state of mind 7; understanding 3 or realm of thought, or Christian thinking, standpoint, basis, viewpoint 8).

                judgment (Gk. “gnome” – opinions 5, 6, 7, 8; decision as to what’s to be done 3).

1:11         quarrels (Gk. “epides” – strifes; contentious wranglings, Gal. 5:20 6; angry, verbal fighting).

1:13         baptized in the name of (metaphor – identified as being the possession of 2; incorporated into 3 so as to give sole allegiance to 5 or be devoted to his service 4; identified with as the object of your faith and confession 6).

1:16         baptize (Gk. “bapto” and “baptizo” – mean “to dip under or in; immerse” 9).

1:17         the gospel (the good news that Jesus Christ died for the believer’s sins, was buried, and rose on the third day, and by believing this, one is forgiven of all his/her sins and is given eternal life in heaven, 1 Cor. 15:1, 3, 4; Acts 13:38, 39; 16:31; 1 Pet. 1:3-5, 9).

cleverness of speech (the teachings of human reason; human wisdom; philosophizing human origin or content 6).

cross of Christ (metonymy – the substance of the gospel, 1:23 2, 3, 4, 6; the value of the doctrine of Christ’s crucifixion for the payment of all the believer’s sins, which results in forgiveness and eternal life).

void (powerless 6; useless; null; valueless).

1:18         word (message).

cross (metonymy – the doctrine of salvation through the crucifixion of the Son of God as a sacrifice for the sins of believers). 6

                perishing (on the path to destruction, not annihilation 7; into eternity without Christ 2; on the way to eternal punishment, Matt. 25:46; 2 Thes. 1:8, 9; 2 Pet. 3:9, 7; Rev. 14:11; 20:10).

                being saved (i.e., on the path to or in the process, as a constant stream of people, of entering the door of eternal fellowship with Christ 2, 1 Pet. 1:4, 5).

                the power of God (effectual to salvation 6, Rom. 1:16).

1:20         scribe (metonymy – Jewish scholar in the law). 1, 6

                debater (metonymy – Grecian philosopher). 1, 6

1:21         the message (the gospel, vs. 18).

1:22         signs (direct tokens from heaven that Jesus was Messiah, Lk. 11:16 3; striking manifestations of power 5; external supernatural evidence 6; miraculous authenticating mark indicating supernatural power involved 9).

wisdom (a philosophic demonstration of Christianity 3, 5; rational evidence 6).

1:23         a stumbling block (an offense and complete impossibility 5; an insult 6).

                foolishness (absurd). 6

1:24         the called (those God chose to open their eyes of faith to believe the gospel 1; those God has predestined from eternity past to be saved, to give eternal life in heaven to, 2 Tim. 1:9; Rom. 8:29, 30; 2 Thes. 2:13; Eph. 1:4, 5, 11; Acts 13:48; 16:14, by giving them the faith to believe, Eph. 2:8, 9).

                the wisdom of God (ellipsis – in saving sinners through Him).

1:25         foolishness (Gk. “moria” – foolish thing in the eyes of the world, i.e., the cross/gospel). 5

weakness (Gk. “moron” – weak thing in the eyes of the world, i.e., the cross/gospel). 5

than men (ellipsis – than what men can produce). 5

1:26         calling (see 1:2).

                wise (worldly, human learning/knowledge). 3, 5, 6

                flesh (metonymy – human standards). 7

                mighty (great, influential 1, 5, having power 7 and authority 4). 6

                noble (of high breeding or rank in society 1, 5, 6, 7).

1:27         foolish things (ignorant/foolish portion of mankind 6 by human/the world’s standards).

                weak (those who lack greatness or influence, the lowly 6; low rank 4).

1:28         base (lowly birth 3, 4, 5; ignoble/insignificant 6, of no family 8).

                despised (treated as of no account 5; people in low condition 6).

                the things that are not (that which is nothing at all 5; those entirely overlooked as though they had no existence, too insignificant to be noticed at all 3, 6).

                nullify (bring to nothing 6; to render completely ineffective 5; shame).

                the things that are (those who make their existence known and felt). 6

1:30         by His doing (because God is the efficient cause, not due to ourselves 3, 6; God chooses 7 whom He wants, vs. 27; Rom. 9:11, 15, 16, 18; also see 1:24 note).

                in Christ Jesus  (converted, or in saving union with Christ). 6

                wisdom from God (Christ personified the wisdom of God 1 for our salvation 3 in giving believers righteousness, sanctification, and redemption 2, 5).

                righteousness (the right standing that is given believers in justification, Rom. 4:24, 25). 1, 2, 3, 5, 6

                sanctification (see 1:2)

                redemption (glorification 1; the final redemption/deliverance of the body, Rom. 8:23 2, 3, 5, 6).

2:1           wisdom (human/worldly wisdom). 1, 6

the testimony of God (the gospel, 2 Tim. 1:8 5, 6; Christ crucified, 2:2 7).

2:2           Jesus Christ and Him crucified (His person, who He is, and His office/work, what He did to accomplish the believer’s salvation 3, 4, 7; which constitutes the gospel 6).

2:3           weakness (personal and bodily, 2 Cor. 10:10; 12:7, 9; Gal. 4:13 3, 5; or, not self-confident or self-reliant 6, but God-dependent 1).

                fear and … trembling (idiom – a humble frame of mind, Phil. 2:12 2; deep conscientiousness 3 or great care and concern arising out of a sense of his insufficiency and of the infinite importance of his work 6; nervous and rather shaky 5).

2:4           of the Spirit and of power (ellipsis – of the Spirit to convict, convince, and convert people, Jn. 3:5, 6; 6:63; Titus 3:5; 2 Thes. 2:13; and of power in signs and wonders/miracles, Rom. 15:19). 3, 4, 6, 13

2:5           the power of God (the gospel truth 6, 1:18 and Rom. 1:16, accompanied by divine operation and evidence 4).

2:6           wisdom (metonymy – at the heart of which is the plan of salvation 1; ellipsis – spiritual wisdom of which the Gospel is a part 2; the deeper principles of Christian doctrine 3). 4

                mature (ellipsis – in the things of God, spiritually 2; in the faith 5; in Christian experience and knowledge 3). 4, 7, 8

                rulers of this age (primarily Jewish, but also Roman, vs. 8; Acts 2:23; 3:17; 4:27, 28). 5, 13

2:7           wisdom in a mystery (truth which is undiscoverable apart from divine revelation 1, 2, 6, 8; previously unknown or unannounced knowledge to mankind 3, 4, Rom. 16:25, 26; Eph. 1:9; 3:1-10). 4, 5  (i.e., the redemption of man). 6

                hidden (metaphor – not understood; in the dark to unbelievers/the natural man, 2:14). 5

                predestined … to our glory (predetermined from eternity past to our benefit 6 and exaltation 7, Rom. 8:29, 30; Eph. 1:4-12; 2 Thes. 2:13)

2:10         us (believers 1, 2, 5, 7 via the holy apostles and prophets, Eph. 3:5 4, 6).

                revealed them through the Spirit (i.e., gospel and salvational truths/doctrines and much more, Jn. 14:26; 16:13-15 were revealed through the Spirit). 7

                searches (accurately and thoroughly knows). 6, 8

                depths of God (inmost recesses of His being, perfections, and purposes 6; nature, attributes, and counsels 3, 7).

2:11         the spirit (Gk. “to pneuma” – the invisible life principle of a person; the real person himself that’s invisible and immortal, Lk. 8:55; 24:39; 1 Pet. 4:6, and desires, feels, and knows, Matt. 26:41; Acts 17:16; 1 Cor. 2:11).

2:12         we (the apostles, as the context, vss. 10, 12, 13, is speaking of divine revelation and inspiration 4, 6, 13 or, believers 1, 2, 5, 7).

                spirit of the world (demonic, Eph. 2:2 3; more probably, humanistic reasoning 4, 5, 6, 7, 13).

                know (understand 7 and accept 4, vs. 14; be illuminated by the Spirit regarding 7).

                the things freely given (such as, the gospel, salvation, redemption, faith, eternal life, justification, sanctification, glorification, the Holy Spirit, etc.).

2:13         spiritual thoughts with spiritual words (spiritual concepts/ideas/truths/revelations were communicated with God-given, Spirit-led word choice/language/vocabulary 2, 3, 6 inspired/expressed by the Spirit 7).

2:14         natural man (unregenerate 1, 6, 7; a person without the Spirit 1, 3, 4; non-Christian 2; man of animal nature or soul 3, 7; man absent of spiritual discernment 5).

                appraised (discerned/recognized 2, 4, 5, 6; judged 7).

2:15         spiritual (possessing the Spirit and guided/ruled by or yielded to Him 1, 3, 13).

                appraises (evaluates 1; understands 2; has practical insight into 3; or rightly decides/judges 5, 7/discerns 4, 6).

                all things (as to whether something is truth or error, right or wrong spiritually 4; ellipsis – of the Spirit). 6

                appraised (judged 1, 2, 4, 5, as to whether right or wrong in spiritual matters or doctrine). 6

                no man (ellipsis – who doesn’t have the Spirit, since spiritual believers can judge, 5:9-12; 12:3; Gal. 1:8). 6

2:16         who has known … instruct Him (if a person is not superior to God so as to instruct Him, then that person can’t judge a believer who has Christ’s/God’s truths or doctrines). 6

                we (the apostles 4; or spiritual 1, 5, 7, 13; Christians 3).

the mind of Christ (ellipsis – regarding truth as revealed to the apostles by the Spirit, and to us as revealed by the apostles and by Scripture 4, 5, 6; to the extent/degree of capability to apprehend it 3).

3:1           spiritual (see 2:15).

men of flesh (Gk. “sarkinois” – carnal, spiritually weak 2; worldly Christians 6, 7; greatly influenced by worldly thinking and behavior 1; had much of a carnal tendency 3; young in the faith, but still being carnal and corrupt in affections, with no blame attached because they are new 4, 8; those not having gained victory over their sin nature 13).

babes in Christ (metaphor – new believers 2, 5; weak life in Christ 3, 4; children in Christian knowledge and experience 6).

3:2           milk (metaphor – the doctrine of justification and the blessings that accompany it 1; the elementary principles of the doctrine of Christ and Christianity, Heb. 5:12 – 6:1 3, 4).

solid food (metaphor – the doctrine of sanctification, which called for righteousness in thought and deed, Heb. 5:12, 13). 1, 4

3:3           fleshly (Gk. “sarkikoi”, metaphor – characterized by carnal and corrupt actions and affections and blameworthy because of their age in and knowledge of Christianity 4; worldly, self-centered 1; willfully carnal 2, 13; under the influence of the corrupt nature 6, 8; gratifying self instead of glorifying God and seeking the good of others 7).

                strife (Gk. “epis” – angry, verbal fighting).

walking (idiom – living, guided). 6

like mere men (simile – wholly natural, unregenerate). 3, 4, 6, 7

3:4           men (i.e., acting like non-Christians; carnal, worldly 4).

3:6           planted (metaphor and ellipsis – the church, Acts 18:1-18 2, 7, through evangelism 13, 1 Cor. 4:15 ).

watered (metaphor and ellipsis – the church, Acts 18:24 – 19:1 7, through preaching afterwards 13).

growth (metaphor and ellipsis – spiritually). 5

3:8           are one (ellipsis – in the work/task of building up the body of Christ to maturity, Eph. 4:11-13 1; in harmony 2; in aim and purpose 3, 5). 4

                own labor (faithfulness to the task). 1, 6

3:9           field (metaphor – possession in which God is at work 5, 13; the church 1).

                building (metaphor – possession in which God is at work). 5, 13

3:10         grace (divine enablement). 2, 5, 8

                laid a foundation (metaphor – gave the initial preaching of the gospel). 2

3:12         gold, silver, precious stones (enduring 1 and valuable work 5; truth; pure doctrine 1, 6).

                wood, hay, straw (temporary and valueless work 5). 1  (error, false doctrine). 1, 6

3:13         the day (judgment day for Christians, 2 Cor. 5:10). 1, 5, 6

fire (metaphor – exploratory judgment). 3

                quality (not quantity, 1, 2, 5 but excellence of work 5 and/or teaching 6, James 3:1)

3:14         work … remains (qualitative rather than worthless).

                reward (possibly his converts, 2 Cor. 1:14; Phil. 2:15, 16; 1 Thes. 2:19; 3 or praise from God, 1 Cor. 4:5 1, 4).

3:15         work (teaching 1, 5, 6, sermons, books 7).

                burned up (destroyed 3; not stand the test 6).

                suffer loss (ellipsis – of reward). 2, 3, 5, 6, 13

                saved (eternally 7 in heaven)

                yet so as through fire (simile – barely escape empty-handed with no reward 5 in the kingdom of heaven 6, 7).

3:16         temple (brachylogy – spiritual 3; metaphor – the local church 2, 5, 6, 7; all Christians collectively 3, 4, 5, 13; a house in which God dwells 6).

                you (Gk. “umin” – is plural in Greek and refers to all the Christians in Corinth). 5

3:17         any man (false minister 1 or false teacher 4; saved faulty teachers 13).

                destroys (Gk. “phtheire” – injures with false teaching 4, 6; corrupts 7 or damages 13; mars 6 a local church by leading it away from holiness of life and purity of doctrine 10).

                destroy (Gk. “phtheire” – the word does not indicate either annihilation or eternal torment, but to give a grave penalty to 5; injure with punishment 6, 13; bring into a worse state 6, 10).

                holy (set apart or consecrated to/for God ). 5, 6

3:18         foolish that he may become wise (paradox – foolish by receiving the Gospel in its unworldly simplicity, and so become a fool in the world’s sight 3, but wise in God’s sight; foolish in the eyes of people of this world, by believing in plain and pure Christianity, but wise in God’s eyes 4). 6

3:19         wisdom of this world (proud, vain, humanistic reasoning and philosophy). 4

3:21         boast in men (boast in their ministers, as the ground of confidence and as the source of blessedness 6 because it is self-centered and divisive, 1:12 1, 4).

                all things belong to you (ellipsis – as heirs of God/Christ, Rom. 4:13; 8:17, 32 3, 5; and are for your spiritual benefit 4, 6, 13).  (The universe is yours, the believers, and all things are designed to promote the interests of the church/believers, so don’t boast in men, but in God who has given you all this). 6

4:1           stewards (administrators 2, 13; dispensers 3, 4, 6; overseers 5, 13; or managers 6, 7).

                mysteries of God (the message of the Cross known only by the Spirit’s revelation, 2:7-10 1; heavenly truths only known by revelation 3; God’s truths, which had been hidden from the world in ages and generations past 4 that He is now revealing 5, 6, 7).

4:2           In this case (i.e., as servants and stewards of Christ/God, vs. 1).

4:3           very small (irrelevant 5; amounts to nothing 6).

                examined by you … examine myself (ellipsis – as to his faithfulness 4, 6, 13).

4:5           passing judgment (ellipsis – on a person’s unseen activities, faithfulness, or motives). 4, 5, 6

                the time (ellipsis – of the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ 2, 5, 13; Christ’s second coming 6, 7).

                the things hidden in the darkness (unseen actions). 4, 5, 6, 13

4:6           these things (1:10 – 4:6, dividing over, quarreling about, being jealous of, fighting over, being arrogant in behalf of, idolizing, and judging spiritual leaders).

                figuratively applied to (given as examples for application in 1; illustrated by way of application 5 rather than using the real culprits’ names 2, 4, 13; represented in 3).

                in us (i.e., in our example).

                what is written (ellipsis – in Scripture/God’s Word 2, 7 about humility 1, or about the subordination of man/teachers to God 5, or not to elevate ministers/teachers above Scriptural standards 6, e.g., to honor, 1 Tim. 5:17, appreciate, 1 Thes. 5:12, 13, and obey them, Heb. 13:17, but not idolize them, Deut. 6:13, 14). 13

                one against the other (ellipsis – one teacher/minister/leader against the other teacher/minister/leader). 3, 5, 6

4:7           For … superior (Who thinks you are better than others? 6 – yourself?!).

                have (ellipsis – by way of native endowment or gift 1, 4, 5, ability and influence 13).

                did not receive (ellipsis – from God). 4, 5, 6, 13

                receive(d) it (ellipsis – by grace from God). 1, 4, 5

4:8           you are already filled (irony – perfect 6; the Corinthians acted like they were satisfied and had all they wanted 1, 7, 13 of spiritual food from their favorite teacher 3 and of spiritual gifts 4).

                already become rich, you have become kings (irony – the Corinthians acted and thought as though they had already become this 1; in the mentality of these Corinthians, they thought they needed nothing 1, they felt secure 5, that the Messianic age had begun, a private millennium of their own 2). 6, 7, 13

                without us (ellipsis – attaining your position 5, 6).

                reign with you (ellipsis – if indeed the millennial reign of Christ was here already, Rev. 20:4-6). 5, 6

4:9           last of all (the lowest, basest, the most afflicted of people 6 in rank and condition 8).

                as men condemned (simile – like men appointed 8, 13; the apostles were treated as convicts to whom all comforts were denied). 6

                spectacle (metonymy – a show exhibited in a theater). 4, 6

                world (synecdoche – universe). 6, 8

4:10         we are (ellipsis – in the eyes of the world and in the thinking of some of the Corinthians). 4, 5, 6, 8, 13

                you are (ellipsis – in the thinking/eyes of the Corinthians and others in the world). 4, 5, 6, 13

                fools… prudent… weak… strong… distinguished… without honor (irony). 3, 7

4:12         working with our own hands (ellipsis – at times, Paul financially supported himself and even others, Acts 18:3; 20:34). 3

                reviled (verbally abused).

                bless (i.e., wish them well or speak kindly to them). 6

4:13         conciliate (meet with kindness). 6

                dregs (the most undesirable part, refuse 5, 6, 7, garbage 13).

4:14         admonish (warn 3, 4, 5, 13 and instruct). 6

                children (metaphor and/or brachylogy – spiritual children). 2, 3

4:15         fathers (metaphor and/or brachylogy – spiritual fathers). 4, 6, 7

                through the gospel (ellipsis – through preaching the gospel to you and your trusting in it ). 4

4:16         exhort (i.e., strongly urge).

imitators of me (ellipsis – in being humble, self-denying, and self-sacrificing in the cause of Christ 6; of Paul’s ways which are in Christ, vs. 17 3; as far as I follow Christ 4; in spiritual things 13).

4:17         ways which are in Christ (i.e., imitation of Christ’s life 1; teaching/preaching and practices/life 4, 7; Christ-like character and conduct as a teacher, which included his consistency, zeal, humility, and faithfulness; the ways which Paul followed in his service for Christ 6).

4:19         words (high-sounding speech 3; rhetoric or philosophy 4; fair speech 5;  ellipsis – smooth, eloquent, and persuasive words).

                power (ellipsis – whether it was in/of God 5 the Holy Spirit or not 1, 3 and confirmed by miraculous operations, 2 Cor. 12:12; divine influences and saving effects on people 4; brachylogy – spiritual power 13).

4:20         kingdom of God (God’s rule in the hearts and over the lives of people 4, as primarily seen in their godly character and actions, Rom. 14:17 6).

                words (empty speeches 3; plausible reasonings or flowery discourses 4; good advice, eloquent, empty speaking 5).

                power (ellipsis – of God 5 the Holy Spirit 1 through the converting, Rom. 1:16, and character-changing, 1 Cor. 1:18, power of the Gospel 3, 6, and the miraculous operations of the Spirit 5 and the divine influence on the minds and manners of people, 2 Tim. 3:5 4; brachylogy – spiritual power 13).

4:21         rod (symbolism – hard discipline; severe chastising 1, 2, 4, 13; sternness, ready to rebuke 5).

                love (synecdoche – kindness). 6

5:1           does not exist even among the Gentiles (hyperbole – was rare, not sanctioned by the populace 4, 5, and was even forbidden by Roman law, Cicero “Cluentes” 6.15 and Gaius “Institutis” 1.63 1, 3, 6).

someone has (some sort of permanent union 2, whether as a mistress, wife 6, or concubine 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 13).

                has his father’s wife (idiom – is having an incestuous affair with his step-mother 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, forbidden by God in Lev. 18:8 and Deut. 22:22). Apparently, she wasn’t or didn’t claim to be a Christian (or didn’t fellowship with the church) as nothing is said about discipling her. 1

5:2           arrogant (ellipsis – proud of their liberal view of tolerance and freedom in Christ). 5

mourned (ellipsis – for themselves, the condition of their church). 6

removed (excluded from the congregation 1, 6; excommunicated 2, 3, 4 expelled 7).  It’s unnecessary to  follow the steps in Matt. 18:15-17 when a sin is public knowledge or public and is, therefore, dealt with publicly.

5:3           absent in body (i.e., not there physically).

in spirit (spiritually, in authority/position to make and execute/direct a decision, as he was the spiritual founder/leader of the church, 4:15). 4, 5, 6

                judged (i.e., passed sentence 4, 5; made an unalterable decision 7, 13). 6

5:4           In the name of (i.e., On/By the authority of 5, 13 and representing His person and will 3, 6).

                in spirit (see vs. 3 note).

                power (i.e., apostolic power and/or authority given by Christ 3, 6, authenticated by the ability to do miracles, 2 Cor. 12:12; Acts 13:9-11).

5:5           deliver such a one to Satan (idiom – give Satan permission, as in Job 2:4-7, over such a person). 3

                the destruction of the flesh (i.e., bodily disease/affliction/pain/chastisement 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, possibly death 1, 5 as in 11:30).

                that his spirit may be saved (ellipsis – eternally, glorified, by bringing the person to salvation, e.g., Psa. 83:16, which bodily discipline might prompt or motivate the person to 3, 4, 5; this offender probably was not a true believer, but only claimed or pretended to be one, as vs. 11 uses the term “so-called brother”, or as James 2:14 puts it “if a man says/claims that he has faith”, but really doesn’t, as evidenced by his actions/works).

                the day of the Lord (i.e., the final day of judgment 5).

5:6           boasting (ellipsis – of their spirituality, 4:7, 8; their religious state 6).

leaven (yeast 1, 5 when placed in dough, penetrates it all to make it rise).

                a little leaven leavens the whole lump (proverb – one sin left unchecked in a church can eventually corrupt/infect/contaminate the whole church). 2, 5, 6, 13

5:7           Clean out the old leaven (metaphor – remove the sinning person, vs. 13, 4, 13 or sin 1, 2, 6, evil/corruption 3, 8).

                that you may be a new lump (metaphor – morally pure/holy/clean again in living). 2, 4, 6, 13

                unleavened (metaphor – positionally pure/clean/holy/righteous 2, 4, 6, 13; free of corruption/sin positionally 3, 4, 5).

                Passover (brachylogy – Lamb 1, 3, 7, 8; metaphor or metonymy – sin bearer 2; Redeemer 4; Substitute 6, 13).

5:8           celebrate the feast (brachylogy – the Feast of Unleavened Bread 1, 2, 4, which pictured freedom from slavery to the world system, i.e., Egypt, Ex. 12:14-17; 13:3, 7-9; metaphor – continually live the Christian life 4, 5, 13; let your whole lives be consecrated to God 6).

                old leaven (i.e., old sins still undealt with).

                bread of sincerity and truth (metaphor - pure/right motive, action 5, 6, 13, and doctrine).

5:9           my letter (i.e., an earlier one, now lost). 5

associate (fellowship 2; have common interaction or activity 4, 5).

                immoral (i.e., involved in any illicit sexual activity and failing to repent of/stop doing it).

5:10         people of this world (non-Christians). 6

                covetous (i.e., those with excessive desire for what they don’t have because of discontentment with what they do have).

                swindlers (i.e., one who takes money by fraud or deceit).

                idolater (i.e., supreme devotion to anything or anyone which usurps/takes the place of God 8, e.g., jobs, sports, money, musicians, spouse, cars, computers, family, relationships, school, stock market, martial arts, traveling, weight lifting, etc.).

5:11         so-called brother (whether a brother/believer or one in name only 1, 13 ; carnal professor 3; people who claim to be Christian, but are not 4, 5, 6) .

reviler (one who abuses others 5; one who speaks harshly of others by using abusive language 13).

5:12         outsiders (heathens 4; those outside the church 5, 7 the unsaved 13). 6 A rhetorical answer of “nothing” is expected.

                within (metonymy – Christians or those who claim to be). A rhetorical answer of “yes” is expected.

5:13         Remove (euphemism – excommunicate).

6:1           neighbor (idiom – those related by faith 1; fellow Christian 3, 4, 6, 13; fellow church member 4).

                unrighteous (idiom – non-Christians 1, 4; heathen/Gentile judges 3, 4, 6, 7, 13; all outside the Church 5).

                saints (Christians 3, 4, 6; see 1:2 note). A rhetorical answer of “yes” is expected here and in the following questions in vss. 2-6.

6:2           judge the world (the future and final judgment of the world 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, Dan. 7:22; 2 Tim. 2:12; Jude 1:14, 15; Rev. 3:21; 20:4).

6:3           judge angels (ellipsis – bad angels 1, 3, 4, 13, with the Lord at the judgment of the great day, Jude 1:6; 2 Pet. 2:4).

6:4           of no account in the church (non-Christians 1, vs. 6; heathen 6, 7 magistrates 4).

6:5           decide (ellipsis – what’s right or best; a fair settlement 5).

6:6           brother (i.e., Christian).

law (brachylogy – court, vss. 2, 4).

6:7           already a defeat … one another (ellipsis – and can’t settle them between yourselves as Christians).

                defrauded (i.e., cheated).

6:9           the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God (ellipsis – if they remain in that condition and never trust in Christ as Savior. It’s describing the unsaved 13).

                fornicators (i.e., those involved in premarital sex).

                effeminate (i.e., not manly in appearance or manner).

6:11         washed (ellipsis – of your sins, Acts 22:16; 3:19; 15:9; 20:28; Titus 3:5, by faith in the shed blood of Jesus Christ, Rom. 3:25; Rev. 1:5; Heb. 9:22; Eph. 1:7). 5, 6, 7, 13

sanctified (positionally; see 1:2).

                justified (declared righteous, before God, through faith in Jesus Christ, Rom. 3:24, 28; 5:1). 5, 6, 13

                in the name of (pleonasm – in and because of the person himself, Rom. 3:24).

6:12         All things are lawful (hyperbole – all things, that are amoral or indifferent, such as eating meat, vs. 13, that was sacrificed to idols, 10:19-23; things that once violated Jewish ceremonial law; things not specified as sin by God in the NT; and/or bodily, God-given drives). 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13

                not all … are profitable (ellipsis – in terms of what, when, and where 13, either to us or in how they influence/affect others 6, 7).

                not be mastered by anything (not be a slave to some bodily appetite 4, 6 or anything harmless in itself 7).

6:13         food … stomach... God will do away with both of them (ellipsis – at death 7, 13 and in a future resurrected state when believers will have a spiritual body 3, 4, 6).

                the body is … for the Lord (ellipsis – to glorify Him 2, vs. 20, and serve Him). 4, 5, 13

                the Lord is for the body (ellipsis – to dwell in with His Spirit 7 and be Lord of it 4).

6:15         your bodies are members of Christ (ellipsis – in vital union with Christ, part of Him now 5, 7, 13 because they belong to Christ 7 since He bought them and indwells them, vss. 17, 19, 20; 3:16; 12:13, 14; Rom. 8:9). 6

                take away … Christ (ellipsis – from their proper use). 5

                make them members of a harlot (i.e., make your bodies part of a harlot through sexual union with them in temple worship). 3, 13

6:16         joins himself (ellipsis – sexually).

                one body … flesh (i.e., a composite/compound oneness physically, as in Ezek. 37:17, as opposed to an absolute oneness).

6:17         one spirit (i.e., the Spirit of Christ, the Holy Spirit, Rom. 8:9; Jn. 17:11, 21, 22).

6:18         outside the body (hyperbole – nearly all sins, like stealing, murder, idolatry, cheating, etc.).

                sins against (Gk. “harmartanei eis” – misses the mark of; ellipsis – the God-ordained purpose and use of the Christian’s body).

6:19         are not your own (i.e., don’t own yourself, but are the possession/property of God and, therefore, not free to do what you want with your body because it’s God’s).

6:20         bought with a price (ellipsis – the blood of Christ, Acts 20:28; 1 Pet. 1:18, 19; Rev. 5:9). 1, 2, 3, 6, 7

glorify (magnify 13; honor 1, 6).

7:1           good (expedient 3, profitable 6; advantageous in light of the circumstances mentioned in chapter 7 4, 8).

                touch (metonymy – to have sexual relations with, Gen. 20:6; Prov. 6:29, that is, “marry”, as the NIV translates it). 4, 5, 6, 7

7:2           immoralities (ellipsis – prevalent in Corinth at this time that might prove to be too much of a temptation for many of the unmarried to resist). 2, 3, 5, 13

7:3           fulfill his duty to (ellipsis – to sexually satisfy). 1, 2, 3, 7, 13

7:4           authority over …  own body (ellipsis – to keep it from sexually satisfying the spouse). 5, 13

7:5           one another (ellipsis – of sexual relations). 1, 3, 4, 5, 13

                together again (ellipsis – physically and for sexual relations). 1, 3, 13

                tempt you (ellipsis – to commit immorality). 3, 4, 13

7:6           this (that they should all get married, vs. 2 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13 or all not get married, vs. 1 13).

                concession (permission 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 13, granting; opinion). 5

7:7           as I myself am (ellipsis – single/celibate/unmarried 1, 7 and sexually self-controlled, e.g., Matt. 19:10-12). 3, 4, 5, 8, 13

                gift (enablement 1, 5; favor/grace 6, 8; desire implanted 13).

                one in this manner (i.e., to not get married).

                another in that manner (i.e., to get married).

7:8           unmarried (i.e., never married).

7:9           burn (metaphor – lack sexual control 1; ellipsis – with the flame of lust 3, 4, 14; with sexual desire 5, 7; meaning, to be in continuous unsatisfied sexual desire 8, 13, as it is in the continuous present tense in Greek. It’s not talking about occasional lustful thoughts, which nearly all men have, but about constant, round-the-clock, sexual lust or unsatisfied sexual desire. However, to make this the primary reason for getting married would make the wife nothing more than a sex object and the man an animal, which Paul doesn’t mean to communicate 6. If a man is to get married, it should be because he believes that he can fulfill his God-given responsibilities of evangelism, building up believers spiritually, and living a holy life, better by being married than he could by remaining single).

7:10         not I, but the Lord (ellipsis – because the Lord already addressed the issue of divorce, Mk. 10:2-9). 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13

                the wife … her husband (ellipsis – the believing/Christian wife … her believing/Christian husband). 1, 5

leave (idiom – was commonly used in the vernacular as a term for divorce). 1, 5, 7, 13

7:11         remain unmarried (if a believer violates the Lord’s command to not get divorced, then she needs to either remain permanently unmarried or else be reconciled to her husband and vise-versa). 2, 4, 6, 7, 13

                send (euphemism – divorce/leave/put away). 1, 5, 6

7:12         the rest (Christians married to non-Christians). 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

                I say, not the Lord (Paul under divine inspiration, vs. 40; 14:37; Jn. 16:13; 2 Pet. 3:15, 16 says, because Jesus never discussed this issue). 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8

                brother (believing/Christian man). 1, 2, 5, 6

7:14         sanctified (Gk. “hegiastai” – set apart to God for blessing or benefits also. Examples of extended blessing because of a believer in the family or in some extended relationship to others, Gen. 15:18; 17:7; 18:26f; 19:12-14, 16; 30:27; 39:5; 1 Kings 15:4 1, 5, 13; or that the marriage relation is recognized by God 7).

                unclean (not set apart to God 13).

                holy (Gk. “hagia” – set apart to God for benefits). 13

7:15         leaves (initiates, wants, or insists upon a divorce; see vs. 10). 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 13

                sister (i.e., believing/Christian woman or wife).

bondage (ellipsis – to maintain the marriage).1, 3, 7 8, 13

                to peace (ellipsis – so don’t refuse to let the unbeliever go/divorce, if by staying together it means constant war/discord in the marriage). 2, 3, 8, 13

7:16         save (ellipsis – by staying together, be the channel/instrument that God uses to bring salvation to). 1, 3, 4

7:17         assigned (ellipsis – bestowed/given/distributed a certain gift or divine endowment 5, e.g., single or married).

                called (ellipsis – to salvation). 5, 13

                in this manner (i.e., circumcised or not, a slave or free, vss. 18-24).

walk (metaphor – live out the whole of life 5, as a general rule). 4, 6, 7, 8, 13

7:18         circumcised (having the foreskin of the male genital cut off, usually of those who were Jewish 9).

                become uncircumcised (be restored to his natural condition by surgical operation 3, 5, 8).

7:19         is nothing (ellipsis – of importance/value because it has no influence on our relation to God 4, 6, 13, and a believer is not better or worse for having either one 6).

                the commands of God (ellipsis – given to Christians). These are primarily found in the NT epistles of Romans through Jude. This verse contains a good example to show that Christians are neither under the Mosaic Law/Covenant given to the Israelites (Lev. 12:1, 2) to keep its commandments, nor under any other covenant given to an individual, like Abraham (Gen. 17:10, 11), which pre-dated the Mosaic Law/Covenant, to keep its commandments, such as circumcision. And Christians are not Israelites, as Rom. 9:30, 31; 11:1-26 would show. The same is true of tithing, which was a Mosaic Law/Covenant command given to the Israelites (Lev. 27:30-34), but with a pre-Mosaic Law example in the person of Abram giving a tithe to Melchizedek (Gen. 14:18-20), which Christians are nowhere commanded to imitate/duplicate.

7:20         condition (ellipsis – whether circumcised or uncircumcised, slave, or freeman). 3, 4, 7, 8

                called (see 7:17 note).

7:23         bought with a price (see 6:20 note).

                slaves of men (ellipsis – if you can help it). 7, 13

7:25         no command of the Lord (ellipsis – previously stated during His earthly life, as is true in 7:12).4, 5, 7

                opinion (or judgment, which is as authoritative as Christ’s words, since Paul was writing under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, e.g., vs. 40; 2 Pet. 3:15, 16). 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

                mercy (compassion not deserved).

7:26         the present distress (the pressure or persecution then being suffered by Christians 2, 3, 4 or anticipated to befall them shortly 6). 1, 8

7:27         released from a (i.e., in dissolution/terminated/separated from 6; single, not married to 3, 4, 5 possibly because of the death of the wife 13).

7:28         trouble (more of a burden 2; ellipsis – or problems in their outward state by reason of the present distress 3, 4, 5, 6, 13).

7:29-31    the time has been shortened (there’s a brief period in this world 6; little time is left to continue in this world 4 because of some circumstances known to the Corinthians 5, probably persecution, Acts 18:1, 12, 17, and martyrdom 13).

who have wives should be as though they had none … for the form of this world is passing (because of life’s shortness, especially in light of their circumstances, and because there is nothing solid and lasting in this world system 4 these Corinthian believers were not to be preoccupied with earthly, temporal circumstances and matters, but with eternal matters and duties). 1, 5, 6, 13

7:32-35    free from concern … and to secure undistracted devotion to the Lord (Paul states the advantages for these Corinthian believers remaining single, these being: fewer encumbrances, distractions, responsibilities, and concerns, so as to be able to give undivided devotion and service to the Lord in time, attention, abilities, energy, and resources). 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 13

7:34         holy (consecrated/set apart entirely to the Lord). 5, 6, 13

                in body and spirit (in physical and spiritual or life principle energy to the service of God). 13

7:36         man … he (i.e., a father).

unbecomingly toward his virgin (ellipsis – treating dishonorably or improperly by withholding his daughter from marriage 2, 3, 5, 13 and so disgracing her in their society’s eyes 6, 8).

                full age (i.e., getting along in years 1, 3 at or past the age when marriage is most natural 5).

                if it must be so (i.e., if she doesn’t have the gift of singleness/celibacy). 5

7:37         stands firm (idiom – has a settled and firm conviction about the properness of having his daughter remain single). 1, 5, 6, 13

                under no restraint (ellipsis – from a prior marriage contract 5, or other external necessity, or from evidence which suggests that his daughter was not able to remain single, didn’t possess the gift of celibacy, but required marriage 1). 13

                has authority over his own will (i.e., isn’t a slave, whose master could determine the daughter’s destiny 1, 5; or by any external pressure 13).

                heart (i.e., mind).

7:39         bound (ellipsis – by the law to her husband in marriage). 4, 5, 6, 13

                in the Lord (metonymy – to another Christian/believer, 2 Cor. 6:14). 1, 2, 3, 6, 13

7:40         as she is (ellipsis – single). 1, 4, 13

                think that I also (pleonasm – these words could be eliminated. It’s a polite way of saying, “I have the Spirit of God” 6).

                have the Spirit (am guided by the Spirit 1, 13; inspired by the Spirit 3, 4, 7). 6

8:1           things sacrificed to idols (i.e., animals to heathen idol gods). 2

                we all (i.e., enlightened or stronger Christians). 6

                knowledge (ellipsis – regarding: the non-existence of idols as gods or as Jehovah being the one true God, vs. 4 4, 8, 13; and possibly of the indifference of meats, as in themselves having no sanctity or pollution, vs. 8 3; and that a sacrifice to an idol is nothing in itself; theoretical knowledge that there’s one God and that idols are nothing, vs. 4). 6

                knowledge makes arrogant (ellipsis – by itself 2, 13, without love 3 and theoretical 6 makes a person prideful; that’s conceited 4).

love (ellipsis – of the brethren). 6

                edifies (builds up 3, 7; acts for others 6).

8:2           knows (is in the perfect tense, meaning, fully and completely knows 5, 10; has gone to the bottom of the subject 7).

8:3           known by Him (ellipsis – as one of His disciples or children, 2 Tim. 2:19; Gal. 4:9 with 3:26).

8:4           no such thing as an idol in this world (metonymy – no such existence of a god/deity in the universe 5 that the image/idol was intended to represent/picture/symbolize 3, 6, 7; a non-entity 8, 13).

                no God (i.e., no actual/real God).

8:5           so-called (because certain worshippers called them that 5, 7, 13, but in reality, they aren’t gods, e.g., Gal. 4:8).

                there are many gods (ellipsis – in the thinking/beliefs of the heathen cultures of the world, like Greek, Roman, etc.). 1

8:6           us (i.e., Christians). 6

                for us (pleonasm – these words can be eliminated, as its meaning is that “there is one God”).

from whom are (is the source of, Gen. 1:1). 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 13

                all things (i.e., creation 2; the universe and all it contains 6, 7; both physical and immaterial 13).

                we exist for Him (i.e., our purpose for being created and for being converted is for God). 6

                through whom are (i.e., He is the agent of, Jn. 1:3). 1, 2, 5, 7, 13

                we exist through Him (i.e., Jesus is the agent through which we were born again as Christians 6, Col. 1:13, 16; 1 Pet. 1:3).

8:7           this knowledge (vss. 4-6, practical knowledge 3; that there’s only one true God and that all other idols/gods aren’t gods at all). 1,4,6

                accustomed to (ellipsis – thinking as real 5; out of habit that still grips them 7 to think of the idol as real 8).

                idol (an image representing a god, or the god itself; see vs. 4).

                conscience (sense of doing what’s right; moral judgments and feelings 6).

                weak (metaphor – easily violated or not followed because of a lack of information, understanding, or belief in information known 7; doubtful, Rom. 14:23, not clear or decided; or regards as wrong, what isn’t wrong 6, 13).

                defiled (metaphor – polluted 7; feels guilty 4, 6 that they did wrong 5).

8:8           commend us (i.e., make us near 5, 6 or more acceptable).

8:9           liberty (ellipsis – by the knowledgeable Christian to eat meat that has been sacrificed to idols; or right, 9:4 2, 5, 13). 6

stumbling block (metaphor – obstacle 1, 5; occasion to fall 13 into sin 4, 6, 8; temptation to sin 3).

                weak (metaphor – doubting, undecided Christian, those not having knowledge about the non-reality of idol-gods). 6

8:10         who have knowledge (i.e., the stronger or enlightened Christian). 6

strengthened (emboldened). 5, 7, 8, 13

8:11         knowledge (see 8:1 note).

                weak (see 8:9 note).

                ruined (ellipsis – spiritually 1, 5, 13 or morally 8).

                brother (Christian/believer). 4, 13

8:12         brethren (fellow believers, but who are weak). 4, 13

                wounding (metaphor – harm/hurt 5 by making them feel guilty through your emboldening them to violate their conscience to eat meat sacrificed to idols, which they thought was wrong to do, but did because of their following your example). 7, 13

                against Christ (i.e., to do something to a believer, Christ considers it as doing it to Him, Matt. 25:35-40).

8:13         stumble (metaphor – sin). 4, 6, 7

                meat (ellipsis – that’s been sacrificed to idols). 2, 7, 13

9:1           free (ellipsis – at liberty to exercise my rights as a Christian 5; to regulate my conduct according to my own convictions of what is right, and from any obligation to conform to the opinions or prejudices of other men 6; from obligation to all men, 9:19, and within the realm of non-moral issues 13).

                apostle (see 1:1 note).

                seen Jesus (15:8; Acts 9:3-5, 17, 27; 22:14; 26:13-16).

                work (metaphor – evangelistic fruit 3, 6 or church 4).

9:2           seal (guarantee, stamp of genuineness and authentication, or proof that Jesus commissioned him because of their conversion through his preaching 2, 4, 5, 6, 13 and accompanying miracles, 2:4, 5; Rom. 15:18, 19; 2 Cor. 12:12). 3

9:3           examine me (ellipsis – as to why I refuse to be supported financially by you Corinthians, though I have a right to be, as an apostle, vs. 2, and spiritual father, 4:15, to you).  This served as a positive example of his counsel to the knowledgeable/stronger Christians who were concerned about his rights, chapter 8. 1

9:4           we (the apostles). 3

                eat and drink (ellipsis – at the church’s expense 1, 5, 8, 13; i.e., to be supported financially for our meals 2, 4, 5; without working with their hands, vs. 6 3). 6

9:5           wife (ellipsis – at the Church’s expense). 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 13

                brothers (i.e., half-brothers of Jesus, e.g., James, Joseph, Simon, Judas, Matt. 13:55).

9:6           working (ellipsis – to support ourselves while ministering to others through preaching, evangelizing, doing missionary travels). 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13

9:8           judgment (wisdom 5; thoughts or illustrations 6, 7, 8; reason 4; justification/excuses).

                Law (here, the Mosaic Law 13, vs. 9, or the first 5 books of the OT, called the Pentateuch, but at other times, it refers to the whole Old Testament/Scriptures 7, 8). 5, 6

9:11         sowed … in (metaphor – gave … to).

spiritual things (metonymy – the gospel 4, 5; Christian teaching 2). 6

                material things (material recompense 1; financial help 2; goods that nourish the body 3, 6; material support 4). 13

9:12         others (other Christian leaders, like Peter and Apollos 1, 5; certain other teachers 2, 6 or preachers 13; whether true apostles, vs. 5, or false ones, 2 Cor. 11:20 3).

                do we not more (ellipsis – as founders of your church at Corinth). 5, 7, 13

                endure all things (all kinds of privations/needs, 4:11-13). 6

                cause no hindrance to the gospel (ellipsis – by giving our opponents the opportunity to question the purity of our motives for preaching the gospel or doing missionary work). 1, 2, 6, 13

9:13         those who (i.e., the Jewish priests). 6

with the altar (synecdoche – in the offerings presented for the altar, like meat, grain, and fruit, Num. 18:8-24). 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

9:14         the Lord directed (i.e., Jesus, in Lk. 10:7 1, 5, 13; Matt. 10:10). 2, 6, 7

                living (metonymy – support 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 13; salary 7).

                from the gospel (ellipsis – because of preaching the gospel full-time). 1

9:15         these things (i.e., rights, vss. 4-6, 12). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13

                my boast (ellipsis – that Paul ministered freely and willingly from the heart 1 rather than for remuneration). 3, 4, 6, 7, 13

9:16         under compulsion (ellipsis – because I was commanded to and sent by Christ, 1:17; Acts 22:6-10; 26:15-18). 1, 2, 4

                woe (i.e., disaster 5 or ruinous trouble).

9:17         voluntarily (i.e., as an option). 6

reward (Gk. “misthos” – wage; payment of what is due). 5

                against my will (i.e., not as an option; obligatory, which is true in Paul’s case, vs. 16). 6

stewardship (work 2; duty 3, 6; trust/charge 1, 4; work of administration or commission 5; see Gal. 2:7 8; Lk. 17:10; task 13).

9:18         in the gospel (ellipsis – in preaching the gospel). 2

9:19         free from all men (i.e., not dependent on others in any way 2, 13; not a slave, but a Roman citizen 3, 5, 6). 4

                a slave to all (metaphor – a servant to all kinds of non-Christians, vss. 20, 21, and to weak/less knowledgeable Christians, vs. 22, by subordinating my rights in matters of indifference, amoral issues, for their good 1). 4, 6

                win the more (ellipsis – non-Christians to justification-salvation 7, 8, 13 /Christ/Christianity 4 and weak Christians to sanctification-salvation and better views). 6

9:20         became as a Jew (simile and ellipsis – by not doing amoral things that offended them, and by doing amoral things that Jews practiced, e.g., Acts 21:23-36; 16:3). 1, 3, 5, 13

                win Jews (ellipsis – to Christ). 1

                as under the Law (simile – as if he was under the Law of Moses 2, such as in ceremonies or practices not then repugnant to Christianity). 3, 4, 5, 6 This is not different from “to the Jews”, but only explaining it 6 religiously 8.

                not being myself under the Law (ellipsis – as a means of salvation, Rom. 10:4). 7

9:21         law (i.e., Jewish law). 6

those who are without law (metonymy – the Gentiles/heathen). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13

                law of Christ (i.e., rule of Christ or obedience to Christ 1, 3, 5, 6, 13; the law of love 1, 2).

9:22         weak (metonymy – less biblically-knowledgeable Christians/believers, see 8:7, 9). 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 13

                win (Gk. “kerdeso” means “to win over”; ellipsis – to bring to proper views 6, to sanctification and maturity in Christ 1, 3).

                all things to all men (ellipsis – all kinds of things to all kinds of people). 3, 6

                all means (ellipsis – all kinds of lawful/proper means). 4

                save (deliver, whether to justification for unbelievers, vss. 20, 21, or to sanctification for believers, vs. 22). 1, 9, 10

9:23         all things (ellipsis – to gain the widest possible hearing). 1

                for the sake of the gospel (i.e., because of its preciousness 2, to be able to share it with others 7).

                fellow-partaker of it (i.e., sharer in its blessings 1, 3, 5 or benefits 6).

9:24         Run (metaphor – Live).

                win (metaphor and ellipsis – the prize 6 of an eternal reward, e.g., people saved, 2 Cor. 1:14; Phil. 2:16; 1 Thes. 2:19 1; or a crown of righteousness, 2 Tim. 4:8 6).

9:25         all things (ellipsis – all kinds of things, e.g., diet, exercise, sexual activity 6).

an imperishable (metaphor and ellipsis – an eternal wreath/crown/reward). 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13

9:26         box (metaphor – fight 1, 6, 7; live).

                as not beating the air (metaphor – so as to not miss the mark 2 of hitting the enemy 5, 6, whether Satan 3, or the body 7, or fleshly lusts 4, 6; or not wasting strength on what is not relevant 8).

9:27         buffet (metaphor – keep under 4, 5 personal discipline 2, 3).

                body (its desires, drives, and/or appetites). 4, 5

                slave (metaphor – control it so that it serves me). 3

                preached to others (ellipsis – about giving up their rights for a greater good 1; or about joining the Christian life 2).

disqualified (ellipsis – for the prize 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 13 or crown 5 of people being saved by him or getting the crown of righteousness).

10:1         fathers (i.e., Israelite/Jewish ancestors). 1, 4, 6

                under the cloud (ellipsis – the pillar of cloud 3, 7, 8, 13 in their exodus from Egypt 1, 6 and into the promised land, Ex. 13:21, 22). 4

                the sea (i.e., Red Sea). 4, 5, 6, 13

10:2         baptized into Moses (metaphor – united with Moses, their spiritual head/leader 1, 2, 5, 8; identified and united with 13).

                in the cloud and in the sea (i.e., in/by following Moses, who was guided by the cloud and through the sea). 6

10:3         spiritual (i.e., of supernatural origin).

                spiritual food (i.e., manna; type – the supernatural bread from heaven, Ex. 16:4, 15 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13, with spiritual significance, Jn. 6:32-35, 48, symbolizing Christ). 13

10:4         spiritual drink (type – supernaturally produced water 8, Ex. 17:6, of which Christ is the source 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and symbolizing everlasting or spiritual life, as in Jn. 4:14). 13

                spiritual rock (type, as well as a historically present symbolism for Christ 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 13; metaphor – for Christ 6).

                which followed them (metaphor – Christ, who accompanied, both before and behind, them, Ex. 14:19 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13, and protected and provided for them).

10:5         laid low (euphemism – strewn 2, 3 down 8 or spread out 7, 13 as corpses 5, 6).

10:6         us (Christians/believers). 1, 13

                crave (i.e., strongly desire; demand).

evil things (the pleasures of Egypt, i.e., the world, like meat, fish, and vegetables, Num. 11:4-34 1, 6 instead of what God provides 2, 3, 4, e.g., manna). Though these things may not be evil in and of themselves, they become evil to that person or nation when they are not included in the perfect will of God for him/them).

10:7         idolaters (i.e., those giving supreme devotion in thought, time, money, action/energy, and/or word to anything that replaces God as number one, see 5:11 note).

eat … drink … play (expressions of worship of the idol-calf, Ex. 32:6, 8 3, 4 at a typical idol festival; “play” means “dance” 5, 6).

10:8         immorally (brachylogy – sexually 1, 2, 8, 13. The Moab god, Baal, Num. 25:1-3, was worshipped by the prostitution of Moabite women 4, 5 /virgins 6).

                fell (euphemism – died or were killed by the plague, Num. 25:9).

                23,000 fell in one day (this is not a contradiction to the 24,000 recorded in Num. 25:9. Moses rounded off the exact number up, and Paul rounded it off, down 3, 5 according to common usage/practice 6).

10:9         try (ellipsis – by complainingly and discontentedly questioning the plan and purpose of 1, 3; here, it regarded food; to test the forbearance of 6, to see how far one can go or get away with 5). For us, it might be about an illness, a death, car, house, job, a relationship, being single, your spouse, finances, co-workers, boss, family, etc.

                did (ellipsis – regarding the manna and no water).

                destroyed (metaphor – killed). 1

                serpents (i.e., poisonous snakes, Num. 21:6). 13

10:10       grumble (speak rebelliously 1; complain 5 in a rebellious spirit 6).

                some of them (ellipsis – the Israelites in Num. 16:11, 41 1, 2, 3, 5 regarding their spiritual leaders, Moses and Aaron, or in 14:2, 36 regarding going into the Promised Land with its giants and fortified cities, or both). 6, 13

                destroyer (the destroying angel 4, as in Ex. 12:23 7, 8 and 2 Sam. 24:16 6). 3, 5

10:11       these things (i.e., their being disciplined by God, vss. 9, 10).

example (ellipsis – for them not to commit this sin again). 2

our instruction (ellipsis – to warn us to avoid as sins). 6

whom (i.e., Christians).

the ends of the ages (the past ages before the present one 2, 5; the NT dispensation 3; the Church age, the concluding period of God’s 4, 13; the end of the Jewish dispensation or the last period allotted to the duration of the world 6 before Christ’s second coming 8).

10:12       stands (metaphor and ellipsis – in his liberties/freedoms/rights at the expense of the weak 2; in his position 5; against the power of temptation 6; in himself, his knowledge, and exercise of liberty 13).

                take heed (i.e., beware; pay close attention and care to himself). 4

                fall (metaphor and ellipsis – into God’s discipline 2; temporarily and spiritually 3; into sin 4).

10:13       temptation (trial 4 or testing 5, 13 whether in the form of seductions or afflictions 6).

                are able (ellipsis – to bear). 6, 13

                the way of escape (ellipsis – from caving in to the temptation/trial 13 by turning to the Lord for help).

10:15       wise (i.e., sensible). 5, 6

                judge (i.e., can see it for yourselves). 5

10:16       cup of blessing (metaphor – cup of thanksgiving 5, 6 or consecrated cup 6  symbolized by the cup of wine in the Lord’s supper).

                bless (give thanks 3 in prayer 5, 6, 13).

                sharing (ellipsis – symbolically and spiritually in 4, 6, 7 the benefits of 3, 6, Jesus’ death payment for our sins).

10:17       one bread (one loaf 1, 3, 5, 7, 8; i.e., one Christ).

                we (Christians/believers). 1, 3

                one body (ellipsis – with Christ and one another 3, 4 symbolically 5 and spiritually 7, 8, 13).

                partake (share in). 2, 7, 8

                the one bread (loaf 4, 7; i.e., the one Christ).

10:18       sharers in the altar (symbolism – spiritual fellowship with 5, 7 the One whose altar it is, i.e., God). 3, 4, 6, 8, 13

10:20       sacrifice to demons … sharers in demons (By sacrificing to idols, worshippers were in reality sacrificing to the demons behind those idols 1, Deut. 32:17; Lev. 17:7, and thus were fellowshipping spiritually or symbolically with demons). 3, 4, 5, 6, 13

                sharers in demons (ellipsis – by participating in idol feasts 3, 5 where meat had been sacrificed to the idol 6 and was now being eaten by people at its feast, 8:10).

10:21       drink the cup … partake of the table of the Lord … of demons (ellipsis and symbolism – have spiritual fellowship with Christ and demons at the same time). 4, 5, 13  At idol feasts, pouring a liquid from a cup as a sacrifice to the idol was usually done first, and then the guests drank, so that in drinking they had fellowship with the idol 3 and the demons associated with it 6.

10:22       provoke (i.e., excite 6, stir, stimulate, arouse).

                jealousy (i.e., a fierce desire for what is best 9, which could include severe discipline).

stronger than He (ellipsis – so as to escape His discipline 2 or resist His almighty wrath 4, 6). 13

10:23       lawful … profitable (see 6:12).

                edify (i.e., spiritually build up others). 5

10:24       seek (is in the present tense, meaning “habitually or only”). 6

                neighbor (i.e., other people 5, 6; any person we come in contact with 9).

10:25       questions (ellipsis – about if it had been sacrificed to an idol or not). 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13 It was okay to eat meat from the marketplace because it may or may not have been sacrificed to idols, but by not knowing, it wouldn’t be fellowshipping/sharing in common with demons, nor harming weak Christians. Whereas, eating meat in an idol’s temple restaurant, 8:10, was definitely eating meat that had been sacrificed to a demon/idol, and so, would be fellowshipping with it as well as potentially encouraging the harm of weaker/less knowledgeable Christians, 8:10, 11.

                for conscience’ sake (so you don’t have a guilty conscience if it had been). 6

10:26       all it contains (ellipsis – which includes this meat).

10:27       invites you (ellipsis – to his house). 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 13

10:28       anyone (i.e., another Christian guest 1, 7 or anyone there 4, 5). 6, 8, 13

10:29       the other man’s (a weaker Christian 1, 2, 6, see 8:7; or anyone other than the one who did the informing 5, but one who is weak). 13

                freedom (ellipsis – to eat meat that had been sacrificed to an idol that isn’t really a god).

                judged (i.e., condemned 6).

10:30       slandered (i.e., spoken evil of 5, 6).

10:31       glory (praise 6; pleasing and honoring 4).

10:32       offense (Don’t be the cause of other people stumbling into sin because of your behavior 6 in things indifferent, non-essential 7, non-doctrinal 3, allowable, that are amoral; or don’t be an obstacle to the Jew’s or Gentile’s salvation or the Church’s edification 13).

10:33       all men (all classes/kinds of people, e.g., Jew, Gentile, or Christians, vs. 32).

                all things (ellipsis – indifferent/non-essential/allowable). 6

                the many (metonymy – God’s chosen/elect/predestined ones, e.g., 2 Tim. 2:10; Titus 1:1, 2; Isa. 53:11, 12; the last half of verses 15 and 19 in Romans 5; Matt. 20:28; 26:28 with Jn. 10:11, 15, 26).

                saved (see 9:22). 7

11:1         imitators of me … of Christ (ellipsis – who have put the welfare/best interest of others first, or before themselves, vss. 22, 33; Rom. 15:3; Phil. 2:4-8). 3, 13

11:2         remember me in everything (ellipsis and hyperbole – in your general practices 3 of the ordinances/rules, in the main 4, 6; or regarding direction for public worship 5, 13).

                traditions (oral teachings or doctrines 1, 2 handed down to Paul 5, 7, 8; ordinances/institutions of Christ 4; oral teachings given to the apostles by Christ, 11:23; 15:3 13; here, mainly ceremonies, but including 3 apostolic directions given by word of mouth or in writing, vs. 23; 15:3; 2 Thes. 2:15; instructions relating to faith or practice). 6

11:3         head (i.e., superior in role 4 or authority 5). 13

                of every man (of man in general, as their Creator and Lord, Col. 1:13-16; Phil. 2:10, 11 4, 13; synecdoche – of every believer 6, as He is their Savior, Eph. 1:22, 23; 5:23; Col. 1:18 3).

                man … of a woman (ellipsis – both in the home 5, 1 Pet. 3:1, 5, 6; Eph. 5:22-24, and in the church, 1 Tim. 2:11-13; 1 Cor. 14:34, 35 because she originated from him, vs. 8; Gen. 3:16 1, 2 and was created second, 1 Tim. 2:13). 3, 13

                God … of Christ (as Father to Son, 15:28; Jn. 14:28, and God to the God-man, Jesus, Jn. 20:17; Heb. 1:9 6). 3

11:4         praying (ellipsis – in public, vs. 17). 3, 6

                prophesying (declaring a direct revelation from God 1 under divine inspiration, whether in the form of doctrine, exhortation, or prediction 6).

                something on his head (in the Eastern countries, it was a symbol of shame or subjection to be veiled or covered 4; a sign of being under authority 5, 6; it was the Greek custom for priests, and so at Corinth, and for men in worship to have their heads uncovered 3, 5, 6, 7, 8).

                disgraces his head (i.e., dishonors himself because he’s not subject to any creature, that is, women 5 and is, therefore, inconsistent with man’s superior position 6, 8).

                his head (synecdoche – man’s own physical head or himself 3, 5, 6). 1

11:5         her head uncovered … disgraces her head (since it was a universal custom in both Jewish and Greco-Roman cultures for women to wear a public head covering in the first century, to not do so was a sign of not being subordinate. When carried over into a church or public worship setting, it would communicate the same mentality toward male leadership and her husband, if she was married, one of not being subordinate 1, 5, 6, 8, 13).

                disgrace her head (i.e., her own/herself 2, 3, 6)

                one and the same with her whose head is shaved (ellipsis – as of female slaves and punished adulteresses 8; being a sign of dishonor 1, 3, 5, 6, 13).7

11:7         not to have his head covered (ellipsis – because of man’s high dignity). 5

is (meaning “represents”, as it does in vs. 25). 2, 3, 4, 6, 8

                the image and glory of God (metonymy – God’s representative authority on earth 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 in ruling it 6, and shows forth 5 God’s splendor/majesty 6).

                the woman is the glory of man (i.e., the woman is the divinely-made complement to help the man fulfill his role of ruling the earth and, therefore, shows forth the honor of him or her husband 1, 6).

11:8         man … man (i.e., man was the direct creation of God, while Eve came from Adam’s rib). 5, 6

11:9         woman for the man’s sake (ellipsis – to be his helpmate, Gen. 2:18, 22 4, 5; to meet his needs of companionship and to help with his work 13). These are the two biblical and historic reasons for the subordination of the wife to the husband. 6

11:10       a symbol of authority on her head (i.e.,  a head covering on, which is a symbol of being under the man’s authority 2, 3, 7, especially her husband’s 4, 6, 8, 13).

                because of the angels (ellipsis – who are spectators of the church, 4:9; Eph. 3:10; 1 Tim. 5:21, and would view God’s wisdom being brought into disrepute 1, or who would be offended by such insubordination 2, 3, 7, or out of reverence to these higher beings 6).

11:11       in the Lord (metonymy – in the Christian life 3; in Christ’s fellowship 5; or according to the will of the Lord 6; in the sphere of the Lord 7; or in the spiritual realm 13).

11:14       nature (i.e., feelings determined by education and habit, or native sense of propriety 6, 7, 8; natural law 13).

                nature itself (metonymy – instinctiveness in man as a way to differentiate between the sexes). 1, 6

                if a man has long hair … a dishonor (generally speaking, this was true among mankind, though there were local and temporary exceptions). 1, 4, 5, 6, 13 As to what constitutes long hair is not defined/described, however.

11:15       a glory to her (in all ages and countries, it has been considered an ornament, beauty-enhancing and an honor, to women). 6, 13

                for a covering  (as a natural veil, but not to replace the material covering). 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 13

11:16       contentious (i.e., feisty; argumentative for the sake of arguing 6).

                we have no other practice (i.e., we apostles have no other custom than what Paul just outlined in verses 5, 6, 10, that women wear head coverings in public worship settings). 5, 6  However, in light of the Western world’s different social customs, women don’t need to wear a head covering 5 because a head covering does not connote submission to male authority in this part of the world in this time period. The point to be kept, however, is that women be subject to male headship 1, both in the home and at church meetings.

11:17       come together (ellipsis – to worship 5 or fellowship).

11:18       church (not a building or the place of worship, but the assembly 5, 7 /congregation). 3, 6

11:19       must also be (ellipsis – due to sin in people 1 who profess to be Christian, which brings its natural fruit/results of 3).

factions (divisions 1; separatist groups with self-chosen views 2, 5; sects, due to their sin nature 13; schisms 4 or established parties as separatists 3, 8). 6, 7

                those who are approved (by divine providence, those honest people who are faithful to the truths and ways of God 4 and have stood the test 5 and been found genuine 6; the true 13).

                may have become evident (ellipsis – be obvious in contrast to the wickedness and error of the reprobate 4 or to the false, the self-centered 13).

11:20       the Lord’s Supper (see vss. 23-26).

11:21       own supper (i.e., the rich 3 made it into a social meal or banquet 2, 4, 5 with what they brought 6).

                first (without waiting for 3 and sharing it with others who were poorer, vs. 33). 5, 6, 13

                hungry (the poor got the leftovers if there were any 4, 5, 7, 8, or didn’t have anything to bring 6). 13

11:22       church (people 1; the poorer members 5 /believers/chosen 3, 6, 8, 13).

                nothing (ellipsis – to eat). 7

11:23       from the Lord (directly by revelation 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13. He had other revelations: Acts 18:9f; 22:18; 23:11; 27:23-25; Gal. 1:12; 2:2; 2 Cor. 12:7).

11:24       This is (this represents 1, 2, 13, symbolizes 3, 4, 5, 6, as in vs. 7; Jn. 8:12; 10:9; 1 Cor. 10:4)

11:25       This cup (metonymy – wine). 4, 13

                is (represents 1, symbolizes 13).

                covenant (a relationship in which one party established terms which the other party accepted or rejected 1).

                in My blood (ratified by). 6

11:26       you proclaim the Lord’s death (i.e., the Lord’s Supper was a visible sermon that proclaimed the message of the Cross, 1:18, 23). 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 13

                comes (ellipsis – again; idiom – second coming, Matt. 26:29). 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13

11:27       in an unworthy manner (prostituting the Lord’s Supper by using it for the purpose of social feasting, drunkenness, and factions 4; as an ordinary meal 8; refusing to fellowship with poorer brethren 1; in a careless irreverent spirit, or for any other purpose than that for which it was appointed; in their partiality and divisive spirit 13). 6

                guilty of the body and blood (ellipsis – guilty of sin against the body and blood 2; violating this sacred institution by despising the Lord in which the elements symbolized 4; guilty of irreverence towards Christ Himself 6).

11:28       examine himself (ellipsis – regarding the violations of vss. 20-22 or any other unconfessed sins and get right with God and man first 1, 13, and view the Lord’s Supper for what it really symbolized, that being Christ’s death sacrifice 3 for his/man’s sins). 6, 7

11:29       who eats and drinks (ellipsis – in an unworthy manner, vs. 27).

eats and drinks judgment (metaphor – receives God’s discipline, as seen in vss. 30, 32). 3, 6, 13

                judge the body rightly (distinguish the Lord’s body, as represented/symbolized by the elements 7, from common food). 3, 4, 5, 6, 8

11:30       are weak (have no physical strength). 3, 5, 6, 8, 13

                sleep (euphemism – have died physically). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 6, 7, 8, 13

11:31       judged ourselves rightly (Gk. “diekrinomen” – examined ourselves, made a right estimate 8, 13, and made whatever changes were needed). 1, 5, 6

                be judged (i.e., disciplined by God, vs. 32). 1, 6, 8, 13

11:32       judged (Gk. “krinomenoi” – disciplined). 1, 13

                in order that we may not be (i.e., in order to show that we won’t be, or is separate from those of the world, as discipline is an expression of God’s love for His spiritual children/sons, Heb. 12:5-8). 3, 7

condemned (Gk. “katakrino”, brachylogy – eternally 2 and finally 8). 13

11:33       wait for one another (see vs. 21). 3

11:34       hungry (ellipsis – to the point that he can’t wait for the people to arrive 3 for the Agape meal 1, which precedes the Lord’s Supper 4, and share it together with them, and instead would eat the Lord’s Supper as a common meal to satisfy his hunger). 5, 6, 13

                judgment (God’s continued discipline). 1

12:1         spiritual gifts (literally, the spiritual things 2, 5, refers to gifts or abilities given to each believer by the Holy Spirit 13, to build up the Church, the body of Christ, both quantitatively through evangelism and qualitatively through edification, vss. 4, 7, 11; Eph. 4:11-13). 3

                unaware (ellipsis – of their origin and intent 6, vss. 7, 11; Eph. 4:11-13).

12:2         pagans (i.e., heathen/Gentiles/non-Christians 3; those without a true knowledge and worship of God 4).

                led astray (i.e., under constraint, helpless and knowing no better 5; blindly transported by false guides 3; controlled by a force/influence which they couldn’t understand or resist 6; controlled by demons, 10:19-21 7, 13).

                dumb (lifeless 1; speechless 3, 7 and deaf 4; unable to answer those who call upon them and couldn’t give revelation 5).

                however (In Greek, it has the meaning of “as often as” 7 or “on different occasions” 3.).

you were led (you were controlled by an influence you could neither understand nor resist). 6, 13

12:3         no one speaking by the Spirit of God says, “Jesus is accursed” (no one controlled by or under the influence of the Holy Spirit 2, 4, 13 will say, “Jesus is cursed” 1, meaning “doomed/devoted to destruction” 5, 6, 7, an expression of blasphemy).

                no one can say, “Jesus is Lord” except by the Holy Spirit (ellipsis – no one can genuinely and believingly say/confess 3, 4, 6, e.g., Matt. 16:16, 17, rather than just mouth the words 2, 5, 7, 13, Matt. 7:21-23, that “Jesus is God in the flesh”, except by the Holy Spirit).

12:4         same Spirit (ellipsis – who gives them, vs. 11). 1, 4, 6, 13

12:5         ministries (Gk. “diakanion” – service). 5, 6, 7

same Lord (ellipsis – Jesus Christ, who gives the various types of service or ways to serve the Church with the spiritual gifts, vs. 7; Eph. 4:11-13). 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 13  For example, Sunday School teacher, youth group leader, Christian Education Director, pastor, campus evangelist, mass evangelist, homeless shelter, hospital visitation, food pantry, missionary aviation, nursing home, Christian counseling, Backyard Kid’s Bible Clubs, home Bible studies, prison ministries, choir director or member, etc.

12:6         effects (Gk. “energematon” – the effects of a thing used). 6, 7

same God who works all things in all (God the Father, who produces what effects/results the spiritual gifts have in the lives of people 5, 6). For example, who and how many people become Christians, 3:7; Eph. 2:8, 9; Jn. 6:44, 65, and which Christians respond and to what degree, Phil. 2:13; Gal. 1:15, 16; 2 Tim. 2:25, 26.

12:7         each one (ellipsis – each member of the Church 3; every believer 5, 6, 13).

                the manifestation of the Spirit (ellipsis – in the form of spiritual gifts to be used). 5, 6

                common good (ellipsis – of the whole body of Christ, 14:5, 12, 26; 1 Pet. 4:10; the whole body of believers for their up building 1, 3 rather than for personal gratification, though the possessor of the gift will be benefited as well 5, 6).

12:8         the word of wisdom (was insight into doctrinal truth, 2:6 1; a temporary gift, like apostleship, that had to do with the communication of spiritual wisdom 6 of which only apostles and prophets had, such as is contained in the Epistles 2; the ready utterance for imparting to others of new revelations of divine wisdom in redemption 3 and doctrine 13, e.g., Eph. 3:2-10; 1 Cor. 2:6, 7; 4:1). 4 This gift ended around AD 95 with the completion of the Bible and the death of the last apostle of Jesus Christ.

                the word of knowledge (was unusual, spiritual insight in settling practical problems before the NT was written 15; a temporary gift that dealt with truth of a more practical character as in the practical sections of the Epistles; the Word of God is sufficient now 2; the revelation of exhortations in the practical areas of life 13, e.g., 1 Cor. 1, 5-8, 10, 11, 14).  This gift ended around AD 95 with the completion of the Bible and the death of the last apostle of Jesus Christ.

12:9         faith (is an unusual measure of trust in God, e.g., 13:2 1, not merely saving faith in Christ as Savior 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, whether for miracles 5 or for carrying out God’s will and/or work 4, e.g., Phil. 4:13). 13

                healing (was the ability to restore full health, e.g., Acts 3:7). 3, 4, 5, 6, 13  This gift ended by AD 95 with the completion of the Bible, as it had served its primary purpose as a miracle sign gift (e.g., Acts 4:14, 16, 22; 9:37, 41, 42; 14:3; 19:11, 12) of authenticating both the messenger and his message as being sent directly from God.

12:10       miracles [was the ability to induce physical disability, e.g., Acts 13:11, or even death, e.g., Acts 5:5, 9 1, 5; or to heal or raise the dead 3, 4; this gift no longer exists, vs. 28 6, because its primary purpose was to authenticate both the messenger and his message as being sent directly from God 20, 2 Cor. 12:12; Matt. 10:1, 5, 7, 8; (Acts 26:15-17; Gal. 1:11, 12; Rom. 15:18, 19); (Acts 13:2, 4; 14:3); Heb. 2:2-4; Acts 5:12-16; (Acts 6:5, 6; 8:5-7, 12, 26, 29); (Acts 6:5-10; 22:20).]. This was accomplished with the completion of the Bible around AD 95.

                prophecy [was the gift of directly receiving a message from God and declaring it to the people. Since it was a foundational gift of the Church 1, (like apostleship, Eph. 2:20, when the foundation of the Church was laid by the end of the first century and the Bible was complete), this gift ended, 13:9, 10 15; it was a temporary gift and was the ability to both foretell and forthtell new revelation direct from God 13; but no further revelation is needed now because the Bible is complete 2; the inspired disclosure of the future, Acts 11:27, 28; 21:11 3; uttering inspired words 5, 7, 8; see note in 11:4]. This gift ended around AD 95. See 13:10 note.

                distinguishing of spirits (was the ability to differentiate the Word of God proclaimed by a true prophet from words of a satanic deceiver, e.g., 14:29 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 13; another temporary gift 2, which ended with the completion of the Bible around AD 95. Today, a Christian who is Spirit-filled, knows the Bible really well, knows Greek and Hebrew, and rules of grammar can nearly accomplish the same ability that those who had this gift were able to do.).

                tongues (was the ability to speak a message from God in an unlearned, living known language, Acts 2:8-11 1, 4, 6, 7, 13; it too was a temporary gift 13 and was not some ecstatic utterance 2; this gift no longer exists 6, 13, 15; see also 13:8 and 14:21, 22 notes).

                interpretation of tongues (was the ability to translate an unlearned, known language in the assembly, 1 Cor. 14:27 1, 4, 6, 7, 12; it too was a temporary gift 2, as it was no longer needed when the gift of tongues ended).

12:11       just as He wills (ellipsis – not as we want/desire, seek, or pray for). 1

12:12       one (i.e., a unit). 1

Christ (ellipsis – the body of 1, 2, 5; metonymy – the Church). 4, 6, 7, 13

12:13       baptized into (metaphor – identified with 1; placed in union with 2 or united in 6; placed into spiritually – Wuest’s Word Studies in the Greek NT, vol. 3, “Vocabulary”, p. 73.  A person is baptized by the Holy Spirit upon/at the completion/moment of the act of believing, Acts 11:16, 17).

                one body (i.e., spiritual body, the church).

                drink (metaphor – be indwelt by 1, 3, 5, 8, 13; be partakers 6).

12:14       member (i.e., part). 1, 6

12:18       just as He desired (ellipsis – to place them with their function/ministry and gifts 1, vss. 4, 5, 11). 6

12:22       weaker (more feeble 13 or seemingly unimportant 5, like the gifts of helps, vs. 28, service, or mercy, Rom. 12:7, 8).

12:23       those … less honorable (those whose spiritual gift many view as less spectacular, like exhortation, giving, Rom. 12:8, administration, 1 Cor. 12:28, or distinguishing of spirits, vss. 10, 28). 6

                unseemly (unattractive 5, 6, 13, like apostles, prophets, and teachers, 4:9-13; 2 Tim. 1:8, 11, 12; Acts 7:52; 13:1, 50; 15:32; 16:19, 24, 25, 37).

12:24       seemly members (i.e., good looking 5, like those with the gifts of tongues or healings, vss. 9, 10).

more abundant honor … which lacked (vs. 28, “first… second… third…” in importance, vs. 31).

12:25       same care (mutual/same concern 4, 13 for the well-being 1, 6).

12:27       Christ’s body (metaphor and synecdoche – Christ’s spiritual body 1, the Church, of which the Corinthian believers as a group were a part of). 3, 6, 13

12:28       first … second … third… (these three gifts were numbered to show their greater value 2, vs. 31, which may have been given a lesser role/value by the Corinthians, vs. 31; 14:1 1, 5). 4 All three of these gifts dealt with the superior value of communicating God’s truths/words.

                apostles ( a temporary gift 13; see 1:1 note).

                prophets (this gift no longer exists; see the notes from 12:10 and 13:10). 6

                teachers (those who communicate the already revealed truths of God 1 or doctrine 4).

                helps (those who freely gave of their time, energy, and abilities 3 to help other believers 4 in need 5, 6, like deacons 7, 8).

                administrations (those with the ability to guide the affairs of the church 3, 5, like elders or bishops 7, 8, in such tasks as planning, organizing, delegating, and supervising).

12:29, 30 All are … All do not (these rhetorical questions expect a “no” answer). 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13

12:31       earnestly desire the greater gifts (in Greek, this is in the second person plural 14, meaning, “you” as an entire church body at Corinth should seriously desire the greater in value/importance spiritual gifts 16, like apostle, prophet, and teacher 1, 7, all of which are instructional gifts communicating God’s truths. Truth is very important for the establishment and maintenance of purity in right thinking, believing, speaking, and actions). 4

                way (i.e., manner of life 1, namely, to put the emphasis on love rather than spiritual gifts, and biblical love is based on and desires truth, 13:6; Phil. 1:9, 10; ellipsis – a more excellent way of living and that is to love others).

13:1         if (citing two hypothetical illustrations). 5, 13

                tongues of men (languages 1 on earth 4; the gift of tongues). 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13

                of angels (hyperbole – every imaginable mode of speech). 1, 5  Paul does not say they even exist, just like the hyperboles in Obad. 1:4 and Josh. 11:4. The intentional use of exaggeration for effect is seen in vss. 2, 3 with the use of the word “all”.

                love (Gk. “agapen” – intelligently, intentionally, intensely willing the best for another – Compact Dictionary of Doctrinal Words by Dr. T. Miethe).

                become a noisy gong… (metaphor – momentarily electrifying but then vanishing quickly 1; empty noise, useless sound 4; plenty of noise that’s loud and harsh 5; senseless and loud shrill noise 6).

13:2         prophecy (see 12:10 note).

                mysteries (are truths or purposes of God unknowable to man apart from God revealing them to him; see 2:7 note). 5, 6

                mysteries … knowledge … faith (the gifts of wisdom, knowledge, and faith 1, or prophecy, knowledge, and faith 2, 6, or all four gifts 7, 13 to their fullest potential).

                nothing (an absolute zero 2, 7; worthless 6; unimportant character-wise before God 13).

13:3         give all … deliver (the spiritual gift of giving used to the max/infinite degree, Rom. 12:8).

burned (ellipsis – as a sacrifice 1 for others 5, 6, which can be done from selfish motives).

it profits me nothing (ellipsis – in terms of finding favor 4 or heavenly reward 13 in God’s eyes).

13:4         Love (personification, see vs. 1 note). 2

                patient (Gk. “makrothumeo” – endures irritation and provocation from other people without yielding to anger or retaliation).

                kind (Gk. “chrestotes” – goodness of heart and actions).

                jealous (Gk. “zelos” – an unfriendly feeling toward another because that person has something that you want for yourself).

                arrogant (Gk. “phusioo” – inflated; thinking that you’re more important or valuable as a person because of your race, intelligence, position, possessions, education, grades, career, skills, abilities, associations, looks, wealth, etc.)

13:5         unbecomingly (rudely 1; discourteously 3, base, or vile 4; disgracefully, indecently 7, dishonorably 5, 6; ungentlemanly 13, e.g., 7:36; 11:2-16, 17-34).

                does not seek its own (isn’t self-seeking 1, 5, 7; isn’t selfish 13 / self-centered 4; 8:1 – 11:1). Some people just talk about themselves all the time. They talk about what they did, purchased, achieved, where they went, what they saw, or about their problems and hardships. They’re stuck on themselves. They think they are the only ones in the world whose had rough times, bad experiences, and struggles.

                provoked (angered 2, 13 without just cause 4; touchy/hyper-sensitive 5; quick tempered 6; e.g., 6:1-11).

                take into account (i.e., keep a record of the offenses others do to them).

13:6         unrighteousness (i.e., hurt, sin, or wrong 4; the misfortunes of others or in evil of any kind 5, 13; what’s not right morally 6; e.g., 5:1-13. For example, this person is glad that a particular person got in an accident, lost his wallet, broke his leg, or got divorced.).

                truth (what’s right, in both action 6 and doctrine, especially the gospel 3, 5, e.g., 5:8; 2 Thes. 2:10, 12).

13:7         bears all things (i.e., patiently tolerates 6; covers the private faults of others from the public, as in 1 Pet. 4:8 4, 6, 7, 13). This person doesn’t share the personal/private shortcomings of people with others.

                believes all things (i.e., trusts 1 or is not automatically suspicious 6, 13, but not gullible either 2, 5 if after consideration, it merits unbelieveability, Prov. 14:15; 26:24, 25 4).

                hopes all things (i.e., wishes the best for people, e.g., 9:10, 23). 4, 6

                endures all things (i.e., perseveres 7 patiently 8, or remains steadfast with a positive attitude 5 in the face of unpleasant circumstances 1, 6, e.g., 9:19-22; whether: slandered, criticized for doing and/or teaching what’s right/biblical, threatened, gossiped about, is deserted by friends, has a financial shortage, is unappreciated, his prayers seemed to go unanswered, etc. He keeps going and doesn’t quit.).

13:8         never fails (i.e., never comes to an end; is eternal). 1

prophecy (see the notes from 12:10 and 13:10).

will be done away [is the Gk. word “katargethesontai” and is in the third person plural, future passive form, signifying that the gifts of prophecy and the word of knowledge (special direct knowledge/revelation from God, 12:8) will be abruptly removed and rendered inoperative 7, 10, 16, 21 by an outside agent, by something or someone because their purpose will have been rendered useless or completed. See vs. 10 13, 15, 16].

tongues (see 12:10; 14:21, 22 notes).

                will cease (is the Gk. word “pausontai” and is in the third person plural, future middle form, signifying that the gift of speaking in tongues would gradually die out or pass away in and of itself 7, 16, 21 before the gifts of prophecy and knowledge would end 13, 15, 16 and, in fact, it did some time before AD 70. See 14:21, 22 note).

                knowledge (the gift of knowledge of mysteries supernaturally communicated 3 from God to the gifted person; see 12:8 note; it dealt with God’s revelations on how to live the Christian life and other practical matters).

13:9         know in part and we prophecy in part (none of those who had the gift(s) of knowledge and/or prophecy had all of God’s revelations communicated to them, but only bits and pieces at a time 3, 4, 6, 13, 15, Heb. 1:1).

13:10       perfect [Gk. “to teleion” – means “complete or mature” 14, 15, 17 and is in the neuter gender meaning “the completed thing” 17 (or “complete”, as it’s translated in Col. 1:28 of the NASB) and refers to the completion of God’s Word, the Bible, by AD 96 15, 17Unger’s Bible Handbook. Tongues, on the other hand, will have already ceased in and of themselves before this time because they had already served their primary purpose 15 by AD 70. See 14:21, 22 note.]. 13

the partial (ellipsis – the use of the gifts of knowledge and prophecy in giving fragmentary and isolated 3 revelations). 15, 17

                will be done away (see the note from vs. 8).

13:11       When I was a child… (Paul illustrates the period of the Church’s infancy in the first century when it had to depend on piecemeal revelations, Heb. 1:1, through spiritual gifts, like prophecy and knowledge, because he wished to show that the process of leaving behind the partial/incomplete in favor of the complete/perfect is a natural process, and the gifts of prophecy and knowledge were childhood experiences/events). 15 They were spoon fed by these gifts, but with the completion of the Bible, they could feed themselves.

13:12       For now we see in a mirror dimly (metaphor – before the completion of the Bible in AD 96, believers saw themselves in a blurred way because they only had the Old Testament, some apostolic teachings, prophecies, and partial knowledge from God. The word “mirror”, Gk. “espotron”, refers to “Scripture” 13. The only other time this Greek word is used is in James 1:22-25, where it is used of Scripture, “the perfect law”). 15

                but then face to face … fully (metaphor – when the Bible would be complete/perfect/finalized, then believers would be in a position to see and know themselves fully, even the inner recesses of their hearts, Heb. 4:12, 13 17, by hearing or reading what God said about them in the totality of His Word).

                known (ellipsis – by God). 5

13:13       abide faith, hope, and love (these three qualities will continue to remain long after prophecy, tongues, and knowledge have ended/been done away with/ceased). 13

14:1         Pursue (Gk. “diokete” – is second person plural, meaning “you as a church continually pursue”). We should actively and continually take the initiative in seeking other people’s best welfare.

desire earnestly (Paul picks up the same topic/idea from 12:31 1, 7, 13, “you as a church desire”… ; you should seriously and intensely want to have.).

you (is plural, meaning, as a church desire those who).

                prophesy (ellipsis – words directly inspired by God 5 since it’s a superior/greater spiritual gift, 12:29-31 7, because it’s of greatest benefit to the church as a whole 1, realizing that apostles of Jesus Christ were limited to only 12, and each church couldn’t have a resident apostle there.).

14:2         tongue (apart from its use as a physical organ in some NT passages, it is always used in the NT of a known human language and never used of ecstatic speech/utterance 1).

                does not speak to men (ellipsis – because they can’t understand it if he doesn’t interpret what he says, vss. 5, 13). 1, 2, 3, 5

                but to God (ellipsis – because God knows all languages 3 and needs no interpreter).

                no one understands (ellipsis – no one present understands 1, 6, 13. Paul is simply describing what the Corinthians were doing and not that it was right to do).

                spirit (is that invisible part of man’s being, the life-principle, that has intellect, will, and emotions and can communicate with God as well as use the human body’s faculties it inhabits; however, it does not necessarily include understanding of mind to the speaker/person whose spirit it is, vs. 14 3, 5, 14, especially if the language isn’t the one native to the person speaking in tongues).

                mysteries (divine truths, unknown in the past, but revealed by God in the present; a revelatory ability 13; see 13:2 note).

14:3         speaks to men (ellipsis – because they can understand the words in their own language). 1, 6, 13

                edification (strengthening 1; building up 7, 8 Christian character 5).

                exhortation (encouragement 1, 5, 13; incentive 8).

                consolation (comfort 7, 8 from sadness 3, 5, 13).

14:4         in a tongue edifies himself (ellipsis – if there’s no interpretation. He only builds himself up emotionally and maybe spiritually, but the church isn’t spiritually built up 15. So, this is an inferior use of the gift because it was given to edify the church spiritually if used in the church (though this was a secondary purpose for this particular gift, 12:7; 10:24; 14:5, 12. Its primary purpose is found in 14:21, 22). Paul is not saying that they should speak in tongues to edify themselves, but rather he was stating what was going on there.

14:5         wish … tongues (ellipsis – though I know you can’t because of the way God designed the body to function, 12:14, 17-19, 30).

                greater (ellipsis – in importance to the church).

14:6         tongues (ellipsis – without an interpretation).

                what shall I profit you (zeugma – this phrase goes both with what precedes it and with what follows it). 5

revelation … of prophecy (a revelation, direct message/truth, from God given in/with his ministry of prophecy 1, 2, 3; prophecy and revelation go hand in hand, vss. 29-31 5). 6

                knowledge … of teaching (by way of a word of knowledge, 12:8, dealing with practical areas of life, given in/with his ministry of teaching/instruction). 1, 2, 3, 6

                of prophecy or of teaching (Gk. “en” with the locative case means “in” prophecy or “in” teaching, and “en” with the instrumental case means “by” or “by way of” revelation or knowledge). There are only two modes of address here, not four: (revelation in the realm of prophecy) and (knowledge in the realm of teaching). 1, 6

                teaching (instruction in the Christian faith). 5

14:7-9      lifeless things … speaking into the air (unless you have an interpretation to your tongue, it will be like musical sounds with no understanding or meaning and, therefore, with no benefit or intended result to those who hear it, and it would be in vain). 1,2,3,4,6,13

14:9         also you (Gk. “umeis” – meaning “each of you”).

you utter (Gk. “dote” – meaning “you all utter”).

For you (Gk. “esesthe” – meaning “you all”).

14:11       barbarian (foreigner 3; each would be to the other like a foreigner, not understanding each other). 4, 6

14:12       also you (Gk. “umeis” – meaning “each of you”).

since you (Gk. “este” – is plural meaning “you all”, “the church”).

                zealous of (really eager for).

14:13       pray (ellipsis – that if God wills it, he, the tongue speaker, might be the one whom God also grants to have the gift of interpretation as well). Praying for something that God has already predestined is not wrong to do, it is merely sharing your desire with God while having the attitude that His will be done, e.g., Rom. 10:1 with 11:25, 26.

                interpret (ellipsis – the tongue/language, so that the hearers/church can be edified/built up spiritually). 1, 3, 5

14:14       pray in a tongue (ellipsis – pray publicly 4 in church/an assembly, vs. 16, I do so with my spirit, but it’s neither intellectually/educationally beneficial to me nor to others in the church without its interpretation). 5, 7, 13

                spirit (see vs. 2).

                mind is unfruitful (i.e., understanding 6 is not benefited and, therefore, I’m not truly benefited in spiritual education nor is the church). 2

14:15       What is the outcome then? (i.e., What is the conclusion then? To be profitable/truly edifying, I should pray and/or sing with my mind also 7 by having an interpretation for the tongue 13, vs. 13, or else I should keep silent, vs. 28.). 3

                with the spirit (ellipsis – when speaking in tongues).

sing (the same point regarding praying in tongues is true for singing in tongues).

14:16       bless in the spirit only (metonymy – give thanks in/with the spirit when speaking in tongues). 13

                fills (i.e., is in or occupies 6).

the place (i.e., the position 3, 6, 7).

                of the ungifted (of the Christian who doesn’t have the gift of interpretation of tongues 1, 2, 3).

                say the Amen (i.e., be in agreement). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

14:17       edified (i.e., built up spiritually).

14:18       in tongues (i.e., in foreign languages). 6, 13

14:19       the church (Gk. “ekklesia” – means the meeting of believers 13 or the Christian assembly, and not a building. There were no Christian buildings at this period anyway). 5, 15

                with my mind (i.e., so as to be intelligible 5, 6).

14:20       children in your thinking (ellipsis – by getting a religious, emotional high from speaking in tongues for yourself personally; using tongues for self-amusement 5; pleased with trifles 6).

in evil be babes (be inexperienced in having or participating in an evil/hateful attitude toward others). 8, 13

                be mature (ellipsis – by using spiritual gifts that edify the church as a whole).

14:21       the Law (i.e., the Old Testament, specifically Isaiah 28:11, 12). 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13

                men of strange tongues (in the book of Isaiah, it refers to the Assyrian army, 27:13; 8:4, 7-9, 15; 10:5, 6, 12, 24; 2 Kings 17:1-18, 22, 23, and this hearing of strange tongues to the Jews was a symbol of rejection 13 and judgment 5, 6, 8; Deut. 28:47-52; Isa. 28:11-13; 33:19. In Isaiah, it was a symbol of judgment on the unbelieving, God rejecting Israelites).

                this people (refers to the unbelieving, God rejecting Israelites/Jews/Ephraimites, Isa. 27:12; 28:1, 14). 1, 3, 5, 6, 13

14:22       So then (i.e., because God had used, as predicted in Deut. 28:49, a strange/foreign tongue, i.e., Assyrian, as a sign of condemnation 3, of God’s abandonment 4, of impending judgment, Isa. 28:11-13, upon the Jews in Isaiah’s time). 18

                tongues are for (i.e., the purpose of the foreign tongues). 18

                a sign (a divine token of some generally, future event 11 or a warning/admonition, e.g., Lk. 2:34; 11:29, 30 10; a punitive sign 1 of condemnation 3, of impending/soon-to-come judgment from God 5, 22. That judgment came in AD 70 with the destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman army. 18 Therefore, the gift of tongues ceased by that time 13, 15 since its primary purpose was completed).

                unbelievers (i.e., the “this people”, vs. 21, or the unbelieving, Christ-rejecting Jews). 13, 15

                prophecy is for a sign … to those who believe (ellipsis – a direct message to a person, a prophet, from God 5 as a warning or admonition 10 for the edification 13 and comforting of believers, vs. 3).

14:23       ungifted (see vs. 16 note).

                all (ellipsis – those present in the church/gathering).

14:24, 25 unbeliever … convicted… (prophecy that’s of a warning and/or admonishing nature can even benefit an unbeliever by exposing his sinful condition and need for the one true God and Savior 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. This doesn’t contradict vs. 22, as the unbelievers in vs. 22 are those who have already heard God’s word and rejected it, whereas here, the unbeliever has not heard God’s word before 2, 5). The ungifted, on the other hand, is convicted/shown to be guilty about some other sin(s) in his life.

                account (ellipsis – to God for his sins).

                heart (i.e., thoughts and attitudes).

worship God (i.e., positively responds to God in faith). 4, 6, 13

God is certainly among you (Christianity is divine and Christians are true children of God) 6

14:26       psalm (i.e., hymn 1; a song of his own composition 5; a song of praise to God 6).

                teaching (see 12:28 note).

                revelation (see vs. 6 note).

                tongue (see 12:10 note).

                edification (ellipsis – of the believers when at the assembly/church). 6

14:27       at the most three (Paul through God the Spirit limits the number of tongues-speakers at a church meeting). 5

                each in turn (Paul also limits to one just how many can speak at any given time). 5

14:28       keep silent (This shows that speaking in tongues was not some irresistible impulse of the Holy Spirit.). 5

speak to himself and to God (ellipsis – silently 6, 13 or when alone in private 3, 4. Just as divorce, because of a spouse’s immorality, was permitted, Matt. 19:7-9, though it was not God’s intended perfect will, 19:6, so private speaking in tongues was permitted, though it was not God’s intended purpose for the gift, 1 Cor. 12:7; 14:12; or as an inferior use of the gift).

14:29       others pass judgment (ellipsis – who have the gift of distinguishing of spirits 8 ascertain whether the message delivered was indeed from God 1, 3, 5, 6, 13; or let the other true prophets pass judgment on their legitimacy 1, 4, 6, 13).

14:30       another … first (ellipsis – prophet).

14:31       you (ellipsis – who have the gift of prophecy). 5

                all prophesy (ellipsis – but not at the same meeting, vs. 29). 6

                that all (ellipsis – the church).

14:32       the spirits of prophets are subject to prophets (the gift of prophecy 1; or the utterance of the words/messages, Jn. 6:63; the human spirit or life-principle of a prophet that is also a receptacle of communication from God of divine messages is under the control of the prophet’s will). 3, 5, 8, 13

14:33       saints (see 1:2 note).

14:34, 35 women keep silent … improper (probably refers to married women, as the word “subject” always refers to married women in the NT when used in reference to women and because vs. 35 refers to them asking their own husbands questions at home. Not saying anything at all in the regular church worship service 5 would express these wives’ subordinate, but not inferior, relations to their husbands 1, whereas speaking in public would be an act of independence, as if they were not subject to their husbands). 3, 4

the Law (the Old Testament 6, 13, specifically in Gen. 3:16). 3, 5

14:36       Was it from you … has it come to you only? (i.e., Were you the ones who originally declared God’s word and what it meant? 1; Do you have some unique authority or place? 2; Do you think you are the only source, interpreter, and recipient of divine revelation/directives? 1). These rhetorical questions all expect an answer of “no”.

14:38       he is not recognized (ellipsis – as someone to be paid attention to or to waste any more time or words on 3 and left to his own blindness or condition 2, 4, 5, 6; or, is not recognized as a true prophet or spiritual, vs. 37; or, is not recognized by God 8).

14:39       desire (i.e., you as a church should desire).

do not forbid to speak in tongues [Since 1st Corinthians was written in AD 55 1, 3, 15, this admonition was still valid, as this gift was still operational until sometime in or before AD 70, when it ceased to exist because its primary purpose (as a sign of impending judgment upon the unbelieving-in-Jesus-as-Messiah nation of Israel) had been served by then. See vs. 22 note.].

15:1         the gospel [means “good news”, and in the Epistles, it’s the good news of salvation through Christ and received by faith in His substitutionary death (for the believer’s sins), burial, and resurrection, vss. 3, 4; 1:17, 21, 23.]. 4, 9, 10

                received (i.e., believed 4, as in Jn. 1:12).

                stand (are continuing to adhere to as the truth). 6

15:2         saved (Gk. “sozesthe” – is in the present continuous tense, meaning, “are being saved” 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 13, focusing on sanctification 1).

                if you hold fast… (this phrase is a first class conditional clause in Greek, “ei katechete”, where “ei” meaning “if” is used with the indicative mood, which expresses reality/fact. The ending “ete” on “katechete” is the second person plural ending of the present active indicative mood (p. 13 of Dr. Summers’ grammar book). When such a conditional clause is used, it expresses the content of the phrase as true, fulfilled, or as being fact, so that the word “if” has the meaning of “since”. – Prof. Paul Kaufman, An Introductory Grammar of NT Greek, p. 104; Dr. Ray Summers, Essentials of NT Greek, p. 109. So, the apostle is saying that these Corinthians are saved “since” they held fast the word/gospel. If they didn’t, it would mean that they were out of sanctification or fellowship with God, but were still justified and promised eternal life in heaven, if they had ever truly believed the gospel to begin with, Jn. 6:47; Eph. 1:13, 14 with 4:30; Rom. 8:29, 30; and 6:23 with 11:29)

                in vain (worthlessly, vs. 17, or on an inadequate basis 5).

15:3         first importance (i.e., the gospel is the most important message one can share with a new contact/person).

received (ellipsis – from the Lord, Acts 26:16-18; Gal. 1:11, 12). 6, 13

                our sins (the sins of believers, Jn. 10:11, 15, 26 rather than everyone’s inclusively in the whole world).

according to the Scriptures (probably Psa. 22:16-18; 69:9,21; Zech. 12:10; Isa. 53:5-12; Lk. 24:25-27; Acts 26:22, 23). 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 13

15:4         raised according to the Scriptures (probably in Psa. 16:10; Isa. 53:10-12). 1, 5, 6, 13

15:5         the twelve (brachylogy – apostles; antonomasia – a technical name or title assigned to the group and not to the actual number. It could have been 10 or 11 of the 12 apostles. Compare Lk. 24:33-36 and Jn. 20:19-25 with this verse). 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13

15:6         brethren (believers/Christians) .

                remain (ellipsis – are alive). 1, 5, 6, 7, 13

                have fallen asleep (euphemism – have died). 5, 6, 13

15:7         James (probably the Lord’s half-brother, Gal. 1:19). 1, 2, 3, 7, 13

15:8         one untimely born (metaphor – one who wasn’t nurtured over a natural period of time by Christ during His earthly ministry 1 as the 12 apostles were 2, 4, 5).

15:10       grace of God (favor not deserved from God). 6

                I am what I am (i.e., an apostle of Christ 3 preaching the gospel). 6

                vain (i.e., worthless).

                them (i.e., the other apostles).

                not I (i.e., not in my own self/human efforts).

15:11       preach (ellipsis – the same gospel; the death and resurrection 6 of Christ). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 13

15:14       vain (i.e., worthless, empty, useless, vs. 17). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13

15:17       still in your sins (ellipsis – because it was His resurrection and ascension to heaven that showed that God the Father had accepted Jesus’ substitutionary death-payment for our sins).

15:18       fallen asleep in Christ (euphemism and metaphor – died as believers). 1, 3, 5, 6, 13

                perished (ellipsis – into everlasting misery or painfulness 1,6,7; as lost souls in the unseen world 3, in Hades 13; irretrievably lost 5).

15:19       hoped in (i.e., believed/trusted in/relied upon).

                in this life (i.e., for happiness in this life only). 5

                pitied (ellipsis – because of the persecutions, hardships, and sacrifices that accompany being a Christian). 1, 5, 6

15:20       first fruits (a preliminary installment by way of example and guarantee of more to come 1, 2, that is, of all other believers’ resurrection 3, 4, 5, 6, 13; the first to a life that knows no death 5).

                those who are asleep (euphemism – believers in Jesus Christ who have died).

15:21       a man came death (i.e., Adam, the father of mankind, in his sin, brought physical death to everybody). 1, 3, 4, 6, 13

                a man also came the resurrection (i.e., Christ, the spiritual brother of those related to Him by spiritual birth or conversion, brought resurrection from the dead 1, 3, 4, 13 and far more 6, even eternal life in heaven).

15:22       in Adam all die (ellipsis – physically by virtue of mankind’s union with Adam both representatively and vitally, all mankind dies). 4, 5, 6

                in Christ all shall be made alive (ellipsis – physically by virtue of all believers’ union with Christ; believers shall be made alive in glorified bodies, Phil. 3:20, 21, and given eternal life). 5, 6

15:23       first fruits (first one to resurrect 3, 6, 8, 13 and not die again. See vs. 20 5).

                at His coming (ellipsis – for the Church, 1 Thes. 4:13-18). 1, 2, 3, 6

15:24       then comes the end (after the millennial reign of Christ 1, 2).

                has abolished all rule … power (i.e., put down or rendered inoperative every foe, both angelic 8 and human 7, Rev. 20:7-10). 6, 13

15:25       reign (ellipsis – on earth for a 1000 years, Rev. 20:4-6, Christ that is). 2

                all His enemies (both physical and moral, vs. 24). 6, 13

                has put under His feet (idiom and anthropomorphism – has subdued or defeated them). 6, 13

15:26       abolished (nullified 1, 4; rendered powerless 3, 5, 6 at the great white throne, Rev. 20:11-15 13).

death (personification 1 and brachylogy – physical death). 13

15:27       He (i.e., God, Psa. 8:6). 5, 7

                His (here, it refers to Christ). 5, 6, 13

                He says … He is excepted (i.e., God the Father). 5, 6, 7, 8, 13

                subjection to Him (i.e., Christ). 5, 6, 7

15:28       to Him … to the One (i.e., God the Father). 6

                subjected to the One (ellipsis – in role, not in equality or essential nature). 5, 6, 13

                to Him (i.e., Christ). 6

                all in all (i.e., supreme in everything and in every way). 5, 6

15:29       who are baptized for the dead (not enough information is given here for us to really know what is meant, but to which the Corinthians obviously understood/knew 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13. Possibly, some believers who hadn’t been baptized yet were motivated to boldness and got baptized because they saw or heard about other believers being martyred. This is possibly inferred in vss. 30-32 and 7:26, 29).

                for (Gk. “upper” – in behalf of).

15:30, 31 in danger every hour … I die daily (Paul and the other apostles were constantly in danger because of preaching the gospel, and metaphorically, he died daily. That is, he was liable to be murdered or martyred on any day, e.g., 2 Cor. 1:8, 9; 4:9, 10; 6:4, 5; 11:23-27; Acts 16:22, 23; 14:19; Rom. 8:36). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13

                protest (i.e., swear it 5; solemnly assure you 6).

                which I have (ellipsis – as the fruit of my labors).

15:32       wild beasts (probably a metaphor for his persecutions from men resembling wild beasts, e.g., 16:9). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8

                me (ellipsis – if there is no resurrection).

15:33       bad company (i.e., those with wrong doctrine; those who don’t believe in a resurrection, vss. 12, 32, 34, 35). 5

                corrupts good morals (ellipsis – of others by influencing them to wrong conclusions, perspectives, philosophies, goals, priorities, and/or conduct 2. For example, the false doctrine of man having a free will can lead to guilt or a sense of failure if a person you witness to doesn’t respond positively to the gospel, reluctance to evangelize for fear of not being able to persuade a person to accept Christ as Savior, or pride if you do lead someone to Christ. Or, the false doctrine of the prosperity gospel, that God wants every Christian healthy and wealthy, can lead to guilt if you don’t have enough faith to experience these qualities or pride or a false sense of spirituality if you do. Or, the false doctrine that every Christian should speak in tongues can lead to guilt feelings or that you’re a second-class Christian if you don’t, and pride or a false sense of spirituality if you do. The false doctrine that everyone is equal in heaven can take away a person’s motivation to obey God and, instead, live carnally. Or, a wrong definition of God’s love, that He wouldn’t cause us hurt/pain by disciplining us if we don’t confess and repent of our sins could lead to carnal living as well.).

15:34       Become sober-minded (awake to righteousness 2, or come out of your mental drunken state or delusion 6; awake out of the sleep of carnal intoxication and live rightly 3, 4, 13; come to your senses 5).

                stop sinning (i.e., sin is the inevitable moral result of wrong doctrine 2, 5, here, of not believing in the resurrection 4 because it leads to a “let’s eat and drink” mentality, vs. 32, of self-centered indulgence. Wrong doctrine/beliefs leads to wrong living.).

                some have no knowledge of God (i.e., some people in the church were ignorant of God/Jesus, His power, and, therefore, denied the resurrection, vs. 12).

15:36       fool (Is Paul violating Matt. 5:22 by calling the Corinthians fools? No, in two respects. First, the word “fool”, here, is from the Gk. word “aphron” meaning “without reason”; whereas, in Matt. 5, it’s the Gk. word “moros” meaning “stupid”. And second, the Matt. 5 passage is dealing with how the earthly kingdom Jew is to live in Christ’s earthly kingdom, Matt. 4:23; 19:28; Rev. 20:6 rather than what a Christian can say during Paul’s life and period of history.).

                That which you sow (i.e., The seed which you plant). 1, 5, 6

                dies (ellipsis – in the form in which it was planted, Jn. 12:24). 5, 6

15:37       the body (metaphor – the plant). 1, 5, 6

                grain (i.e., seed).

15:38       a body (i.e., material organism 7, 8; housing, composition).

                wished (i.e., originally purposed at the creation 8). 6

15:39       flesh (Gk. “sarx” – body substance 10, including its form 8).

15:40       heavenly bodies (e.g., sun, moon, stars, etc.). 2, 6, 8

                earthly bodies (see vs. 39). 8

                glory (splendor/magnificence 1, 4; resplendent brightness 6; beauty of form and color; luster 8; brilliance 13).

                one (ellipsis – type of splendor, that of living things or that of inanimate things).

15:42       So … dead (i.e., So there are differences in the bodies and differences in the glory/splendors of the present earthly bodies from the resurrected bodies). 5

                sown (i.e., buried). 4, 5, 6

                perishable (i.e., decaying 5, 6).

                imperishable (i.e., incapable of decay 6).

15:43       in dishonor (fallen, due to Adam’s sin, vs. 22; with a sin principle within it 2; decaying 5 and vile 4; no rights 5, 13 and/or no attractiveness 6).

                glory (see vs. 40 note).

                in weakness (temporal and imperfect 1 physically 2, 13; helpless/powerless 5, 6, 7).

                in power (perfect, eternal 1, 7; filled with energy 6; with eternal self-sufficiency 13; powerful 5).

15:44       a natural (i.e., earthly – temporal, imperfect, weak 1; suited for this present life 5, 13; animal-like with flesh and blood, needing air, food, water, and rest 6).

                a spiritual (heavenly – eternal, perfect, powerful 1; supernatural, the organ that is intimately related to the spirit of man 5, 8; a body adapted to the rational, immortal principle/spirit of our new nature 13). 6

15:45       living soul (living being 1 or personality 8, 13; or, life in that form which we have in common with animals, except with an immortal spirit/soul 6).

                last Adam (metonymy – Christ 2, 5, 7 and without human father 1; great head and representative man 6, 8, 13).

                life-giving spirit (i.e., giver of spiritual life, Jn. 5:21 5, 6, 13, with the new, glorified body 7, 8).

15:46       spiritual … first … natural (ellipsis – body).

15:47       first man (i.e., Adam).

                second man (i.e., Christ).

15:48       the earthy (metonymy – Adam’s). 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13

                those who are earthy (i.e., all mankind). 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13

                the heavenly (metonymy – Christ’s 3, 4, 5, 6, 13 in His ascended state 7, 8).

                those who are heavenly (i.e., Christ’s risen people, believers in their resurrected state, Phil. 3:20, 21). 3, 4, 5, 6, 13

15:49       image (i.e., likeness). 5, 6

15:50       flesh and blood (i.e., the natural body 1, 3, 4, 7; the present physical body 5, 13). 6

                inherit (possess). 5

                kingdom of God (the eternal state 1, which is spiritual 3; the heavenly regions 4, 13).

                perishable … imperishable (is a repeat of the first half of the verse). 4, 6

15:51       a mystery (see 2:7 note). 1, 3, 5, 6

                we (ellipsis – believers). 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 13

                sleep (euphemism – die; see vs. 6). 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 13

                changed (ellipsis – at the rapture, 1 Thes. 4:14-17, into having a spiritual/glorified transformed body 2 like Christ’s, Phil. 3:21; 2 Cor. 5:2, 4). 4

15:52       last (i.e., marking of the final end of things as we know them now). 5

trumpet (ellipsis – of God’s, 1 Thes. 4:16).

the last trumpet (ellipsis – for the Church 1, 1 Thes. 4:16, at the Rapture). 2, 4, 5, 7, 13

                the dead (ellipsis – Christians’ bodies).

15:53       perishable … mortal (ellipsis – body).

                put on (i.e., be changed into).

                mortal (i.e., subject-to-death body).

                immortality (i.e., the free-from-death, glorified body of the believer). 10

15:54       Death … victory (i.e., physical death is completely defeated and destroyed 5; death’s power is removed 1). 6

15:55       O death … (an apostrophe from Hosea 13:14 quoting God’s thoughts about death).

15:56       The sting of death is sin (i.e., the injury/cause of death is the result of sin 1, 2, 3, 6, Rom. 6:23 5, 13).

                the power of sin is the law (since sin is rebellion against or disobedience to God’s will/word, and the law is an expression of God’s will/word, then sin/disobedience is fueled by having the law, Rom. 4:15; 5:13; 7:7). 2, 3, 5, 6, 7

15:57       victory (ellipsis – over death 3, 4, 6, vs. 22 1, through Christ, 2 Cor. 5:21; Jn. 3:16; Heb. 2:14, 15)

15:58       the work of the Lord (i.e., evangelism, see 16:10; the promotion of Christ’s kingdom, 3:5-11 1; Acts 20:24; Phil. 2:30 3).

                in the Lord (when according to His will 3; when done for Him 4; when done in His strength and for His glory 5).

16:1         collection (ellipsis – voluntary collection of money, e.g., 2 Cor. 9:7, 11, 12). 6

                the saints (i.e., the needy believers/God’s people in Jerusalem, vs. 3; Rom. 15:26; see 1:2). 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 13

16:2         first day of the week (Sunday, seems to be the day that Christians soon began meeting on to worship together 1, 2, 4, Acts 20:7, as a sacred day in commemoration of the day Jesus was resurrected 3). 5, 6, 13

                each one (i.e., not just the wealthy). 1, 3, 5, 6

save (ellipsis – either privately at home 2, 7, 8, or more probable, it was in the church treasury 5, 6, 13, a portion of his weekly income/money 3, 4, 5. This has nothing to do with tithing 1 to their local church/group of believers, as tithing was an OT Jewish law and not a NT Christian obligation).

as he may prosper (i.e., in proportion to his income, Acts 11:29). 1, 3, 5, 6

                that no collection be made when I come (ellipsis – so that it will be ready to be sent 4, 13 and can be given gladly rather than grudgingly, 2 Cor. 9:5, due to either emotional appeals 8 or personal pressure 2). 1

16:3         whomever you may approve (i.e., so Paul couldn’t be accused of financial dishonesty, the church would pick their own trusted delegates). 6

                letters (ellipsis – of commendation from Paul for the individual delegates). 3, 5

16:4         fitting (large enough to make it worth while for me to abandon other work and go with the gift). 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8

16:6         send me on my way (i.e., assist me/Paul for my continued journey 6; provide things I would need for my trip 5).

16:8         Pentecost (an annual feast. It is of Greek derivation, meaning 50th because it was the 50th day after the Firstfruits feast, Lev. 23:16; it was also called the Feast of Weeks 1, 2, 4; the 50th day from the first Sunday after Passover; also called the Feast of Harvest; its primary object was to thank God for the blessings of harvest 8; after the Jewish exile, it became the feast to remember the giving of the law, Torah. It was also the day that the apostles and the rest of the 120 believers from the upper room were filled with the Holy Spirit, Acts 2:1-4.).

16:9         wide door (metaphor – great opportunity). 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8

                effective service (ellipsis – in evangelism ). 4, 13

                adversaries (opponents 1, 7 of the gospel 6; antagonists 3, 4; like the pagan silversmiths and the idolatrous worshippers of Diana, Acts 19:23-41 13).

16:10       afraid (because Timothy was timid in disposition, 2 Tim. 1:7, and young in age, 1 Tim. 4:12, and some Corinthian church members were self-willed). 4, 5, 6, 13

                the Lord’s work, as I also am (Timothy and Paul’s work was primarily evangelistic 6. Paul’s evangelism is seen in Acts 13:2, 4, 5, 23, 32, 38, 39, 46, 47, 49; 14:7, 14, 15, 21, 26; 16:10, 17, 31; 17:1-3, 18; 18:5; 20:24; 22:15, 18, 21; 26:16-18; Gal. 1:15, 16; 1 Cor. 1:17, 23; 2:1-5; 9:16, 17; 2 Cor. 2:12; Phil. 4:3. Paul and/or Timothy’s evangelism is seen in 2 Cor. 1:19; 5:18-20; 1 Thes. 1:1, 5; 2:9; Phil. 2:22; 2 Tim. 4:5. Second, it was building up believers to Christ-like maturity, Eph. 4:11-13, as seen in Paul’s training of Timothy – Acts 16:1-5; 17:15; 19:22; 20:4; 1 Cor. 4:17; Rom. 16:21; 2 Tim. 3:10; of Silas – Acts 15:40, 41; 16:19, 25; 17:4, 10, 15; 1 and 2 Thes. 1:1; 2 Cor. 1:19; of Luke – 2 Tim. 4:11; Col. 4:14; Rom. 16:21; the we/us referring to Luke who is the author of Acts and Luke in Acts 16:10-14; 20:5 – 21:18; 27:1 – 28:16; of Titus – 2 Cor. 2:13; 8:23; 12:18; Gal. 2:1; Titus 1:4; of others – Phil. 1:25; Acts 18:23; 19:9, 10; 20:3, 4, 31; and Timothy’s building up of others spiritually – 2 Tim. 2:2; 3:10).

16:11       despise him (ellipsis – because of his young age, 1 Tim. 4:12). 6

peace (i.e., a friendly manner 6, with respect 3 and whatever he needs 3, 5).

brethren (who bear this letter, vss. 12, 17 3; or certain believers from Corinth 5, as Paul was, vs. 8, in Ephesus).

16:12       brother (brachylogy – spiritual/Christian brother)

                the brethren (see vs. 11).

16:13       the faith (ellipsis – of the gospel 4; or, all clear revelations of God or Christian doctrine 6, 13).

                act like men (i.e., be responsible, not immature 5; be courageous 6; be mature or grow up 13).

                be strong (metaphor and ellipsis – in opposing evil people or false teachers 4; and/or under trials 6; bold in the face of satanic and human persecution 13; not infants easily swept away 1, but firm 14).

16:14       in (i.e., out of a motivation of).

16:15       first fruits (metaphor – the first converts 1, 3, 13 to Christianity 4, 6).

                devoted (i.e., committed full-time 5, as a voluntary duty 2).

                ministry to the saints (i.e., responsibility for the general welfare of the church/Christians 1, serving them 5).

16:16       subjection to such men (submit to/obey 4 those who devote themselves full-time to, or assume the responsibility for the proper servant-leadership of, other Christians). 1, 5, 6, 13

                helps in the work and labors (i.e., is devoted/committed 6 full-time to serving/building up spiritually and tirelessly 5 other Christians).

16:17       coming (ellipsis – with the letter of inquiry, 7:1). 2, 4, 6, 13

                what was lacking on your part (i.e., fellowship 5, 6; encouragement 1, 3, vs. 18; Phil. 2:20, as spiritual leadership can be very draining, e.g., 2 Cor. 4:8, 9).

16:18       refreshed my spirit (encouraged me 1 by their fellowship, or possibly by their bringing a good report about many of the Corinthians 3, 4, 5).

                and yours (ellipsis – by their bringing this letter of mine to you). 2, 3

                acknowledge (i.e., value and recognize their worth 5, and respect and treat them kindly accordingly 3, 4 with honor and appreciation 6, 13).

16:19       churches (see 1:2 note).

                in the Lord (i.e., with all good/blessing/favor from the Lord). 3, 4

                church that is in their house (assembly of believers who meet in their home, Rom. 16:3-5). 1, 2, 3, 6

16:20       all the brethren (ellipsis – from Ephesus 4 other than from Aquila’s home).6

                holy kiss (an ancient custom 2, but with a warm greeting 5; men to men and women to women rather than promiscuous between the sexes 7, 13; a token of the mutual love of Christians 3, 6). The cultural equivalent today in the USA would be a hug or warm handshake.

16:21       my own hand (Up until this point the apostle was dictating 3 this letter to an amanuensis to record, but now Paul personally writes.). 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13

16:22       love (Gk. “philei” – means “have tender affection for” 10 or “fondness for” 9). 14

accursed (Gk. “anathema” – meaning, “devoted to destruction, the object of a curse”). 2, 4, 5, 6, 7

                Maranatha (is a transliteration from the Aramaic for, “Come, O Lord!” or “The Lord comes”). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

16:23       grace (i.e., favor).

16:24       love (i.e., desire for your best welfare; see 13:1 note).

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

1)       The Bible Knowledge Commentary, NT, by Drs. J. Walvoord and R. Zuck.

2)       The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, by Drs. C. Pheiffer and E. Harrison.

3)       Commentary on the Whole Bible, by Drs. R. Jamieson, A. Fausset, and D. Brown.

4)       Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible, vol. 3, by M. Henry.

5)       Tyndale’s New Testament Commentaries – The First Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians, by Dr. L. Morris.

6)       1st and 2nd Corinthians and Ephesians, by Dr. C. Hodge.

7)       Word Pictures in the New Testament, vol. 4, by Dr. A. T. Robertson.

8)       Word Studies in the New Testament, vol. 2, by Dr. M. R. Vincent.

9)       Expository Dictionary of Bible Words, by Dr. L. Richards.

10)    An Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, by Drs. W. Vine, M. Unger, and W. White Jr.

11)    Unger’s Bible Dictionary, by Dr. M. Unger.

12)    The New Bible Dictionary, by Dr. J. D. Douglas.

13)    Called to be Saints – An Exposition of 1st Corinthians, by Dr. R. Gromacki.

14)    The New Analytical Greek Lexicon, by Dr. W. Perschbacher.

15)    Biblical Conclusions Concerning Tongues, by Dr. N. Sellers.

16)    Speaking in Tongues, by J. Dillow.

17)    The Charismatics and the Word of God, by Dr. V. Budgen.

18)    Survey of the New Testament, by Paul Benware, Moody Press.

19)    Figures of Speech Used in the Bible, by Dr. E.W. Bullinger.

20)    Wuest’s Word Studies in the Greek New Testament, vol. 1, Dr. K. Wuest.

21)    Essentials of New Testament Greek, by Ray Summers.

22)    The Corinthian Catastrophe, by Rev. G. Gardiner, p. 36.

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