The Gospel of John

Introduction [Skip Intro]

Authorship

Internal evidence.

In the strict sense of the term, the Fourth Gospel is anonymous. No name of its author is given in the text. This is not surprising because a Gospel differs in literary form from an epistle or letter. The letters of Paul each begin with his name, which was the normal custom of letter writers in the ancient world. None of the human authors of the four Gospels identified himself by name. But that does not mean one cannot know who the authors were. An author may indirectly reveal himself within the writing, or his work may be well known in tradition as coming from him.

Internal evidence supplies the following chain of connections regarding the author of the Fourth Gospel. (1) In John 21:24 the word “them” refers to the whole Gospel, not to just the last chapter. (2) “The disciple” in John 21:24 was “the disciple whom Jesus loved” (John 21:7). (3) From John 21:7 it is certain that the disciple whom Jesus loved was one of seven persons mentioned in John 21:2 (Simon Peter, Thomas, Nathanael, the two sons of Zebedee, and two unnamed disciples). (4) “The disciple whom Jesus loved” was seated next to the Lord at the Last Supper, and Peter motioned to him (John 13:23-24). (5) He must have been one of the Twelve since only they were with the Lord at the Last Supper (cf. Mark 14:17; Luke 22:14). (6) In the Gospel, John was closely related to Peter and thus appears to be one of the inner three (cf. John 20:2-10; Mark 5:37-38; Mark 9:2-3; Mark 14:33). Since James, John’s brother, died in the year a.d. 44, he was not the author (Acts 12:2). (7) “The other disciple” (John 18:15-16) seems to refer to the “disciple whom Jesus loved” since he is called this in John 20:2. (8) The “disciple whom Jesus loved” was at the cross (John 19:26), and John 19:35 seems to refer to him. (9) The author’s claim, “We have seen His glory” (John 1:14), was the claim of someone who was an eyewitness (cf. 1 John 1:1-4). Putting all of these facts together makes a good case for the author of the Fourth Gospel having been John, one of the sons of a fisherman named Zebedee.

External evidence

The external evidence is the traditional ascription of authorship which has been well known in the church. Polycarp (ca. a.d. 69 – ca. a.d. 155) spoke of his contact with John. Irenaeus (ca. 130 – ca. 200), the bishop of Lyons, heard Polycarp and testified that “John, the disciple of the Lord, who also had leaned upon His breast, had himself published a Gospel during his residence in Ephesus in Asia” (Against Heresies 3.1). Polycrates, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and other later fathers support this tradition. Eusebius was specific that Matthew and John of the apostles wrote the two Gospels which bear their specific names (The Ecclesiastical History 3.24. (3-8).

Place of Origin

The external tradition is strong that John came to Ephesus after Paul had founded the church and that he labored in that city for many years (cf. Eusebius The Ecclesiastical History 3.24. 1). Supporting this tradition is the evidence of Rev. 1:9-11. When John was in exile on Patmos, an island off the coast of Asia Minor, he wrote to seven Asian churches, the first of which was Ephesus. That the Fourth Gospel was originally published at Ephesus is a good probability.

Date

The date for the Gospel of John was probably between a.d. 85 and 95. Some critics have attempted to assign a date as late as a.d. 150 on the basis of the book’s alleged similarities to Gnostic writings or because of a supposed long development of church theology. Archeological finds supporting the authenticity of the text of John (e.g., John 4:11; John 5:2-3), word studies (e.g., synchrōntai, John 4:9), manuscript discoveries (e.g., P52), and the Dead Sea Scrolls have given powerful support to an early dating for John. So it is common today to find non-conservative scholars arguing for a date as early as a.d. 45-66. An early date is possible. But this Gospel has been known in the church as the “Fourth” one, and the early church fathers believed that it was written when John was an old man. Therefore a date between 85 and 95 is best. John 21:18, John 21:23 require the passing of some time, with Peter becoming old and John outliving him.

Purpose

The purpose of the Gospel of John, stated in John 20:31, was to record Jesus’ “signs” so that readers would come to believe in Him. Doubtless the author had other purposes as well. Some have argued that John wrote against synagogue Judaism, or the Gnostics, or the followers of John the Baptist. Some think John wrote to supplement the other Gospels. John’s Gospel has a clear evangelistic purpose (as do the other Gospels), so it is no accident that it has been greatly used in the history of the church for that purpose.

John’s Distinctive Portrait

When one compares the Gospel of John with the other three Gospels, he is struck by the distinctiveness of John’s presentation. John does not include Jesus’ genealogy, birth, baptism, temptation, casting out of demons, parables, transfiguration, instituting of the Lord’s Supper, His agony in Gethesemane, or His Ascension. John’s presentation of Jesus stresses His ministry in Jerusalem, the feasts of the Jewish nation, Jesus’ contacts with individuals in private conversations (e.g., chaps. 3-4; 18:28-19:16), and His ministry to His disciples (chaps. 13-17). The major body of the Gospel is contained in a “Book of Signs” (2:1-12:50) which embraces seven miracles or “signs” which proclaim Jesus as the Messiah, the Son of God. This “Book of Signs” also contains great discourses of Jesus which explain and proclaim the significance of the signs. For example, following the feeding of the 5,000 (John 6:1-15), Jesus revealed Himself as the Bread of Life which the heavenly Father gives for the life of the world (John 6:25-35). Another notable and exclusive feature of the Fourth Gospel is the series of “I am” statements that were made by Jesus (cf. John 6:35; John 8:12; John 10:7, John 10:9, John 10:11, John 10:14; John 11:25; John 14:6; John 15:1, John 15:5).

The distinctiveness of this Gospel must be kept in perspective. The Gospels were not intended as biographies. Each Gospel writer selected from a much larger pool of information the material which would serve his purpose. It has been estimated that if all the words from the lips of Jesus cited in Matthew, Mark, and Luke were read aloud, the amount of time taken would be only about three hours. Since the ministry of Jesus lasted about three years, a three-hour sample of His teaching is a small amount. Each Gospel records certain miracles or parables and omits others. The focus of the Gospels is the good news of Jesus’ death and resurrection. The Gospels have been called “Passion narratives with extended introductions.” That is, they center on Christ’s death (e.g., Mark 11-16) with only enough information (e.g., Mark 1-10) to explain the nature of the One who ministered and died.

The following facts are known about John’s relationship to the Synoptic Gospels. John, Zebedee’s son, was Peter’s co-worker in Jerusalem during the early years of the church (Acts 3:1-4:23; Acts 8:14; Acts 12:1-2). Further, John was called one of the “reputed… pillars” of the Jerusalem church (Galatians 2:9). The Jerusalem church was led by the apostles, and James the brother of Jesus with Peter and John often took the initiative (Acts 3:1; Acts 4:3-21; Acts 8:14-24; Acts 15:7-11; Acts 15:13-21). During the early years of the Jerusalem church a certain fixed core of apostolic teaching and preaching developed. After a great multitude were converted, “they devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching” (Acts 2:42). Later the number of men who believed grew to about 5,000 (Acts 4:4). It would be necessary for a system of instruction to be set up. This would center around Jesus’ messianic fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies, particularly His ministry and Passion. In particular the commands of Jesus — His “oral Torah” — were to be taught (Matthew 28:20).

This core of early apostolic Jerusalem preaching and teaching came to be written down by Mark who helped Peter in his later ministry. After John was in Jerusalem for many years (perhaps 20) he went to Asia Minor and settled in Ephesus. When John wrote his Gospel he provided, by the Spirit of God, a rich supplement to the early Jerusalem core. Thus John’s distinctive portrait of Jesus contains 93 percent original material in comparison to the Synoptics. As John wrote, he was aware that even his contribution contained only a small fraction of what could be said (John 20:30-31; John 21:25).

The Bible Knowledge Commentary, New Testament, “John”.

The Book of John Commentary was written to give you a better understanding of key passages, difficult passages and a better understanding of what figures of speech John used in his Gospel and what they mean. 

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John 1:1-2

in the beginning (ellipsis – of all time and created existence, the Word already was, or in other words, from eternity past). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

John 1:1

the Word (metonymy – Jesus Christ, God the Son, Jn. 1:1, 14-18, 29-30; Rev. 19:13-16 with Rev. 20:4 and Rev. 17:14). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

(A “word” is a vehicle of communication that expresses a concept, person, place, or thing).

John 1:4

life (brachylogy – the life principle/essence/spirit, Acts 17:24-25 5; the source of both physical and spiritual life 1).

was (As the Hebrew verb has only two principle tenses, the past and the future, these two with the participles supply all the other tenses. Hence, in the New Testament, where the thought and idiom are Hebrew, though the tenses are Greek, they consequently have all the variety which these tenses have in Hebrew. So the past tense not only serves to express what is finished but what is present: regarding it, and also the future, as actually done. This is known as heterosis of tenses. The exact sense can be known only from the context. Here in verse four, “was” is understood to be “is”.). 8, p. 517

the light of men (metaphor – the knowledge of God to men, Rom. 1:19 2, 6; or Jesus 1 , Jn. 8:12).

John 1:5

the light (metaphor – Jesus, Jn. 8:12).

shines (metaphor – shows forth God, Heb. 1:3; Jn. 12:45; 14:9).

darkness (metaphor – the world of fallen man in moral darkness due to sin). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

did not comprehend it (meiosis – didn’t understand or accept the light of the knowledge of God, but even hated it, 1 Cor. 2:14; Rom. 1:21-23, 25, 28 3, 4, 6; or Jesus Himself, Matt. 4:13-17; Jn. 1:18).

John 1:7

the light (metaphor – the knowledge of God as seen in Christ Himself, Jn. 1:9-10; Matt. 11:27). 1, 2, 4, 5, 6

John 1:9

enlightens every man (ellipsis – that is chosen to believe or is one of Christ’s sheep, Jn. 12:46, 34-42; 8:25, 43, 47; 9:35-41; 10:14, 16, 24-28; Matt. 15:14; 13:10-16). 8, p. 616

John 1:10

the world (personification – people in general and the Jews specifically). 1, 3, 4

did not know Him (generally speaking, they didn’t recognize Him as God, Creator, and Messiah, Jn. 10:24; 12:34; 9:16, 24; 8:25). 1, 3, 5, 6

John 1:11

came to His own (ellipsis – property/possession, Israel, Ex. 19:5). 1, 3, 4

were His own (ellipsis – people, the Jews, Deut. 7:6). 1, 2, 3, 4, 6

did not receive Him (hyperbole – in general 1, 4; nationally 3; meiosis – they rejected and wanted to kill Him 4, Jn. 19:6-7, 15).

John 1:12

received Him (ellipsis – as Messiah). 1, 4, 6

children of God (metaphor – spiritually in nature, Jn. 1:13; 3:5; Eph. 4:24; 2 Pet. 1:4). 3, 4, 5, 6

name (metonymy – person, who He is, God the Son, Savior, and Messiah). 2, 3, 5, 6

John 1:13

of (Gk. word – “ek” meaning “out of”).

of blood (metonymy – out of natural descent; family heritage, such as from Abraham, Rom. 9:8). 1, 3, 4, 6

of the will of the flesh (metonymy – out of the natural human desire or sexual impulse). 1, 2, 4

of the will of man (out of an individual’s own personal choice/decision, e.g. , Rom. 9:16). 6 (H. Moulton’s The Analytical Greek Lexicon Revised, p. 29 and G. Kittle’s Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, vol. 1, pp. 360-362 state that the Greek word “andros” means “man” or “an individual” in general, as in Mk. 6:20; Acts 18:24; 3:14; Lk. 20:19; 11:31).

of God (metaphor – out of God spiritually/supernaturally 1, 2, 5; out of God the Holy Spirit being the Author). 6

John 1:14

the Word (see Jn. 1:1).

became (took the form of, while remaining what He was, that is, God). 4

flesh (metonymy – a man/human). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

glory (metonymy – unique splendor 1; manifested Deity 3; divine attributes 4; perfect life and character 7).

only begotten (is the Greek word “monogenous” meaning “one and only” 1, 4; unique, one of a kind 2).

grace (favor/blessings undeserved for the guilty). 4

truth (reality, the final reality and not the mere shadows or symbolism of the Old Testament, Heb. 8:5; 10:1). 4

John 1:15

was (heterosis – “is”). 8

a higher rank (ellipsis – in importance or position). 2, 3, 5

existed before me (ellipsis – from eternity past, Jn. 1:1). 2, 3, 4

John 1:16

fullness (ellipsis – of grace and truth 3, 6; of Deity 2, 5).

we (ellipsis – believers). 1, 2, 4, 6

grace upon grace (one blessing after another comes to us believers 1, 6; unmerited favor of God in Christ is hardly gone when another one arrives 4, 5).

John 1:18

no man has seen God at any time (ellipsis – as invisible Spirit in His, the Father’s, divine essence or essential nature, Jn. 4:24; 1 Tim. 1:17; 6:16). 1, 2, 4, 5, 6

only begotten God (i.e., the Word; the one and only or unique God, Jesus Christ, God the Son). 1, 4, 5

the bosom of (anthropomorphism – breast; and metonymy – intimate relationship to 1, 3, 4, 6).

explained Him (both by speaking the Father’s words/will and by the attributes Christ exhibited).

John 1:19

the Jews (synecdoche – the Pharisees, Jn. 1:24).

John 1:20

the Christ (antonomasia – the Anointed One. The Old Testament portrayed Him as: a king or Prince – Jn. 1:49; Dan. 9:25-26; 7:13-14; Zech. 9:9-10; as God – Psa. 45:6-7; Isa. 9:6; 7:14 with Matt. 1:23; Jer. 23:5-6; as God’s Son – Jn. 1:49; Psa. 2:7; Mk. 14:61-64; as Servant – Isa. 42:1; and as Savior/Redeemer – Isa. 53:1-12).

John 1:21

the Prophet (antonomasia – some Jews thought it was a reference to a forerunner of the Messiah, Deut. 18:15, 18; Jn. 7:40-41; Jn. 1:25, while others thought it was the Messiah Himself, Acts 3:20-22). 1, 2, 3, 4

John 1:23

voice (metonymy – announcer or proclaiming messenger or forerunner). 2, 4, 5

Make straight the way of the Lord (Get ready and clear the road for the Lord’s/King’s coming visit or stay, as Isaiah meant, but even more so, get your personal lives ready for Christ’s coming kingdom by repenting and living right, Matt. 3:2-8). 4, 6

John 1:27

the thong … not worthy to untie (idiom – the lowliest service for Him of which I’m unworthy). 1, 2, 4

John 1:29

the Lamb of God (antonomasia – the sacrificial lamb/victim who was to die for the sin of the world of believers, Ex. 12:3, 13; Isa. 53:7, 12). 1, 3, 4, 5, 6

lamb (a symbol of innocence and patience, Unger’s Bible Dictionary, p. 641).

the sin (collectively of all sins, 1 Jn. 3:5). 3, 4

the world (synecdoche – individuals from every tribe and people and not everyone in the world inclusively; not just the Jewish people, Rev. 5:9; 7:9-10, 13-15 3, 4, 5; “world” has a narrow meaning here, as it does in Jn. 12:19; Acts 19:27; 17:6; it doesn’t mean every person in the world inclusively 8, but only of believers).

John 1:30

(see Jn. 1:15 notes).

John 1:31

manifested (recognizable; displayed/shown; revealed). 1, 6

John 1:32

as a dove (simile – in visible bodily form as/similar to/like a dove, Lk. 3:22). 3, 4, 7

John 1:33

baptizes in the Holy Spirit (immerses in the Spirit, is one in Spirit – Jn. 17:21, and in Christ, His body/church, by the Spirit to those who believe in Christ as Savior/Messiah, 1 Cor. 12:13, 27 with Col. 1:22-23; Acts 1:5; 2:4; 11:16 – Dr. L. Richards’, Expository Dictionary of Bible Words, p. 102).

John 1:34

the Son of God [Besides the normal, customary uses of the word “son” (Heb. “ben” and Gk. “huios”) meaning “male offspring” or “descendant” (rather than immediate offspring), the word “son” can be/is used idiomatically and figuratively – Dr. Larry Richards, Expository Dictionary of Bible Words, p. 572. “Son of” indicates that the person or thing so described stands in some relation to the object mentioned after the phrase “son of”. That relation may be one of quality, resemblance, derivation, destiny, etc. (Dr. William Hendriksen, New Testament Commentary – Luke, p. 587). Characteristics of persons or groups, or a spiritual relationship can be/are expressed by the phrase “son of” (Richards, p. 572). “Son” is often used metaphorically of prominent moral characteristics, or to describe charact­eristics other than moral (W. Vine, Drs. M. Unger, and W. White, An Expository Dictionary of Bible Words, “New Testamnt”, p. 1060). Basically then the phrase “son of” means that the person is similar to or like (in some way) the object/person he is the “son of”. Primarily, “the Son of God” is a title expressing the deity of the Lord Jesus as distinguished from His humanity – Jn. 10:33, 36; Rom. 8:3 (Unger’s Bible Dictionary, p. 581). Though the title “Son of God” can refer to a relationship (e.g., Lk. 1:32, 35; Acts 13:33 – Jesus’ miraculous conception), it is usually used of an expression of character (e.g., Matt. 14:33; 16:16; 27:54; Jn. 1:49), meaning God in human form (Jn. 14:9; Heb. 1:3). Thus, absolute Godhead is intended in the title (Vine, Unger, & White, p. 1061). Jesus Christ is like God in divine nature, all divine attributes (e.g., Jn. 8:58; 14:6; Rev. 1:8 with Rev. 1:17-18; 22:12-16, 20; Eph. 1:20-22; 4:10; Col. 2:2-3; Heb. 13:8; 1 Jn. 2:1) and, in fact, is God (Jn. 10:30, 33; 5:18; 14:9; Phil. 2:5-7). The title “Son of God” also had “messianic” associa­tions, as seen in Jn. 11:27. In Hellenistic Christianity the “Son” of the Palestinian Jewish tradition was regarded as the “copy” of the invisible God – Col. 1:15; Heb. 1:3 (Colin Brown, The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, vol. 3, p. 647). So, for Jesus to be called “the Son of God” was to say He was God (Jn. 10:33, 36).].

John 1:36

Lamb of God (see Jn. 1:29).

John 1:41

Messiah … Christ (see Jn. 1:20).

John 1:46

thing (refers to Christ 8, p. 534 – heterosis of gender similar to verb tenses in the note of Jn. 1:4).

John 1:47

guile (deceit).

John 1:49

Son of God (see Jn. 1:34).

King of Israel (antonomasia – a reference to the coming Messiah, Jer. 23:5; 30:9; Zech. 9:9).

John 1:50

greater things (greater miracles, including His resurrection). 1, 6

John 1:51

you (plural, referring to His disciples here).

will see (may refer to Matt. 16:27-17:5; Matt. 24:30-31; 26:64; or Acts 1:9-11).

heavens opened (symbolism – for free communication between God and man, as seen in Ezek. 1:1-3; Matt. 3:16-17; Acts 7:56-60). 5

the angels of God ascending … (trope – like the ladder in Gen. 28:12, Jesus is God’s communication link and Mediator between heaven and earth, the bond of union between God and man, the One who by means of His sacrifice reconciles man to God).1, 2, 3, 4

the Son of Man (antonomasia – speaks of Jesus being fully human, and as the representative man, Rom. 5:15, for the human race 1, 6, 7. “Son of” can be used as a Hebrew idiom meaning “a member of” or “the same as” – Dr. Lawrence Richards’ Expository Dictionary of Bible Words, p. 572. Or, as a metaphor meaning “characterized by being” 9, pp. 1060-1063. But it also identifies Jesus as the supernatural, heavenly figure and focus of Old Testament prophecy for the end times, when everyone will worship Him, and His dominion will be an everlasting dominion and kingdom, Dan. 7:13-14 2, 4, 6; 8, p. 842; Isa. 7:14; 9:6-7. Jesus is fully man and fully God, Jn. 1:49; 3:13; Jn. 9:35 with Jn. 9:38).

 

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John 2:4

Woman (idiom – was a polite, kind expression, Jn. 19:26; 20:15 1, 7; not a disrespectful term 2, 3, 4).

What do I have to do with you? (Greek idiom – meaning, “Don’t interfere” – here meaning – “in My task or mission or My Father’s will for Me”). 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7

hour (metonymy – time). 1, 3

has not yet come (ellipsis – for publicly showing My Messiahship through performing a miracle, it’s in God’s hands and hasn’t arrived yet). 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7

John 2:11

signs (metonymy – miracles 1, 6; the outward act is intended to reveal the purpose behind it, indicating who Christ is 2, that being, Divine). 4, 5, 7

glory (metonymy – divine character or power). 1, 4, 6, 7

John 2:13

Passover (Jewish holiday/memorial/seven-day festival, Ezek. 45:21, reminding them of God’s grace in delivering them from Egyptian bondage, Ex. 12:7, 12-13). 1, 2, 4

at hand (metaphor – near). 4

John 2:14-16

This is the first cleansing of the temple at the beginning of His ministry, the first Passover. The second Passover is in Jn. 6:4, and the third Passover in Jn. 11:55. The second cleansing of the temple is near the end of Jesus’ ministry, Lk. 19:36-47; Matt. 21:12-13; Mk. 11:15-16.

John 2:15

scourge (whip).

Jesus did not sin by doing this, as He never sinned, 1 Jn. 3:5; 1 Pet. 2:22, but it showed His holy anger.

John 2:16

a house of merchandise (there was nothing wrong with the merchandise itself, but it was wrong to bring it into the sacred place of the temple area 3, which was supposed to be for prayer, Matt. 21:13). 4

John 2:17

zeal (intense, serious effort to do something. Here, it’s to preserve the sacredness of God’s house.).

John 2:19

temple (metaphor – body, Jn. 2:21)

John 2:22

the Scripture (probably Psa. 16:10).

John 2:23

the Passover (a feast celebrated by every male Jew from 12 years of age and up at Jerusalem to commemorate the deliverance of the people of Israel from Egyptian bondage. The day the lamb was killed was followed by an elaborate evening celebration of the feast and the seven-day Feast of Unleavened Bread. So very close was the connection between the Passover-meal proper and the immediately following Feast of Unleavened Bread that the term “Passover” was frequently used to cover both, Lk. 22:1; Acts 12:4; and Ezek. 45:21). 4

in His name (see Jn. 1:12 note).

John 2:24

was not entrusting Himself to them (didn’t put Himself into their hands 7, or commit Himself to them 2).

He knew (ellipsis – in His omniscience as God). 1, 7

all men (ellipsis – as to what they were really like deep inside, including their motives, etc. 1, 7; they may have only wanted Him as a political leader to overthrow Rome 1, 6 rather than as a spiritual leader/Lord.).

John 2:25

to bear witness concerning man (to listen to other people’s testimony concerning the character/true nature of these people). 4

what was in man (in their hearts 1, 4, 6; their lack of genuineness 2; their wickedness 3).

 

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John 3:2

signs (see Jn. 2:11 note).

John 3:3

born again (born from above, from heaven, Jn. 3:31 1, 2, 4, 5, 6; born anew, a second time 2, 3, 5, 7).

see (idiom – take part in or enter, Jn. 3:5). 3, 4, 5

kingdom of God (the sphere or realm of God’s authority and blessing, which is now invisible, but will be visible on earth at Christ’s return 1; it’s equivalent to having eternal life or being saved , Matt. 19:16, 23-25 4).

John 3:5

of (Gk. word, “ek” – meaning “out of”, indicating source).

born of water (metonymy – physically born out of a water sac in the womb; a human birth, as the context shows in Jn. 3:4, 6; and it can’t mean “baptism” as baptism is a work of righteousness, Matt. 3:13, 15, and we are not saved by works of righteousness, Titus 3:5, or by anything other than by faith in Christ, the gospel, 1 Cor. 15:1-4).

born of the Spirit (metaphor – a spiritual birth by the Holy Spirit 6; given a new creation life 2; a new and divine principle of life by the power of God the Holy Spirit, Jn. 1:13 7).

John 3:6

of the flesh (metonymy – physically, Jn. 1:13, or of sinful humanity). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

is spirit (is spiritual 6; or given spiritual life 2).

John 3:8

the wind … so is every one who is born of the Spirit (simile – just like the blowing of the wind is invisible and mysterious and acts with complete independence, not controlled by man, so is what happens to the person born of the Spirit 1, 3, 4, 6; it’s not of the will of man, but of God, Jn. 1:13).

John 3:10

the teacher of Israel (As a Pharisee, he taught the Jewish religion to the Israelites, Lk. 2:46).

John 3:11

we … our (probably refers to Jesus and John the Baptist). 4

John 3:12

earthly things (earthly analogies to spiritual regeneration, Jn. 3:5-8 1, 4, 6, 7, like physical reproduction).

heavenly things (like God’s eternal plan of redemption for anyone who believes, Jn. 3:16, spiritual reproduction, including the Gentiles 4, 7; the things of the gospel 6). 4, 7

John 3:13        no one has ascended into (meaning, has been in 7 to get divine teaching about such matters).

Son of Man (see Jn. 1:51 note).

John 3:14

as Moses lifted … even so the Son of Man (simile – as a bronze snake was lifted on a pole, Num. 21:9, as a cure for punishment due to disobedience, so Jesus would be lifted on a cross as a cure for punishment due to man’s sin). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

serpent (type – of Christ, as a substitute receiver of punishment).

John 3:16

loved the world (in different ways, e.g., Matt. 5:45; Acts 14:17).  (synecdoche – both Jews and Gentiles 4; people in all parts or nations of the world 8, p. 638).

only begotten (see Jn. 1:14).

believes in Him (ellipsis – as the Messiah/Christ/Son of God 4 /Savior, Lk. 2:11; Isa. 53:1-12).

John 3:17

judge the world (ellipsis – condemn the world on this first coming of His 2, 3, 4, or execute sentence upon).

the world might be saved (see Jn. 1:29). 4, 8

John 3:18

judged (condemned). 3, 4

the name (see Jn. 1:12 note).

John 3:19

judgment (decision or verdict). 4

the Light (metaphor – Jesus Christ, Jn. 8:12; 9:15). 2, 3, 4, 5, 7

the darkness (metaphor – the moral and spiritual darkness of sin). 4, 5, 7

John 3:21

the truth (what’s right). 2, 7

comes to (ellipsis – in faith, Jn. 6:35).

the Light (see Jn. 3:19).

wrought in God (done according to God and in His power 4, 5, 7; formed/sourced in God, Phil. 2:13).

John 3:23

baptizing (immersing people into water as a symbol of their repentance, that they changed their thinking about continuing to live in sin by confessing them and instead prepared themselves for acceptance of the coming Messiah, Matt. 3:1-6, 11).

John 3:27

a man can receive nothing (ellipsis – in terms of a certain kind of ministry or blessing on his ministry). 1, 2, 3, 4, 6

from heaven (metonymy – from God). 1, 2, 6

John 3:28

before Him (ellipsis – as an announcer, a proclaiming messenger, Jn. 1:15, 23). 4

John 3:29

bride (metaphor – the people of God). 2, 4

bridegroom (metaphor – Christ). 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7

friend (metaphor – John the Baptist). 1, 2, 4, 6, 7

voice (metonymy – welcoming His people). 4

John 3:30

increase (ellipsis – in popularity and ministry, Jn. 4:1). 1, 2, 5

decrease (ellipsis – in popularity and ministry, Matt. 11:2, 18; 14:10). 2

John 3:31

from above (metonymy – from heaven 1; from God 7).

of the earth (metonymy – out of purely human origin).

speaks of the earth (metonymy – at times, speaks out of his weak, sinful nature, as he does in Matt. 11:2-3, where in doubt, he questions Jesus’ Messiahship 4).

John 3:32

no man (hyperbole – mankind as a whole 1, 5; next to none 3, 6; with some exceptions, John 3:33 4, those being to whom it is given of the Father 8, p. 618).

John 3:33

received (believed, Jn. 1:12).

His witness (ellipsis – that He is from above, Jn. 3:13; 8:23).

has set his seal (metaphor – given his attestation or certification). 1, 4, 5, 7

God is true (ellipsis – that Jesus is His Son, Matt. 3:17).

John 3:34

gives the Spirit without measure (gives Christ the Spirit in an unlimited way: His gifts, power, authority, ministries, qualities, Jn. 1:33 4, 6; whereas Old Testament prophets had the Holy Spirit for limited times and purposes. Jesus had voluntarily given up His independent right to use His Godly powers when He came to earth and instead submitted Himself to God the Father’s will, Phil. 2:6-8; Jn. 5:30; 6:38).

John 3:35

all things (all authority in heaven and on earth, Matt. 28:18). 1, 6

John 3:36

the Son (His message and personage, that He’s the Messiah, Jn. 6:29, 35, 40, 47; 4:25-26; Mk. 1:15). 1, 4, 6, 7

does not obey (metonymy – doesn’t believe 1, 4, 6, 7; Gk. word – “apeitheo” meaning “uncompliant, refuses to believe”, Greek Lexicon by Dr. W. Perschbacher, p. 37; examples in Rom. 10:16; 1 Pet. 2:7-8).

life (brachylogy – eternal life; metonymy – heaven). 2, 3, 7

wrath (punishment of eternal destruction in the lake of fire, 2 Thes. 1:8-9; Matt. 13:42, 50; Rev. 20:15).

 

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John 4:1

Jesus was … baptizing (metonymy – His disciples, that is, Jn. 4:2).

John 4:6

wearied (In His humanity, He was weary; however, as God, He was all-powerful, but He only used His divine attributes when it was His Father’s will. See footnote in Jn. 3:34).

John 4:9

no dealings with (ellipsis – because the Samaritans were part Jew and part Gentile from intermarriages, and true Jews hated this type of intermarriage 2; or it could be because of an A.D. 66 Rabbinic law that states that Samaritan women were unclean, and thus a Jew who drank from her vessel would become ceremonial unclean. 1, 4).

John 4:10

the gift of God (living water 2, 4).

living water (metaphor – the Holy Spirit, Jn. 7:38-39; 1, 2, 5; a symbol of salvation 4, Jn. 3:6-7; Titus 3:5).

John 4:12

father (ancestor).

John 4:14

drinks (metaphor – partakes of).

water (metaphor or symbolism – Holy Spirit, Jn. 7:38-39; 2 Thes. 2:13; Titus 3:5; 1, 5 spiritual life 3, 7).

shall never thirst (metaphor – shall never need spiritual life/salvation again because it’s an eternal possession).

springing up to (metaphor – resulting in).

John 4:18

you have had five husbands (Here, Jesus uses His omniscience to show this sinful women her need for salvation.).

is not your husband (litotes – but is in fact, an illicit lover). 4

John 4:21

woman (see Jn. 2:4 note).

an hour (idiom or metonymy – a time, Jn. 4:23; shortly after Christ’s death with the beginning of the Church).1, 4

John 4:22

which you do not know (the creatures of your own imagination, 2 Ki. 17:28-34, 41, since the Samaritans rejected the prophetical and poetical books of the Old Testament, and had no revealed authority). 3, 4

which we know (God, as revealed in the Old Testament). 3, 4

from the Jews (metonymy – from Jesus, who was a Jew from the seed of Abraham, Gal. 3:16). 1, 2, 5, 7

John 4:23

worship (give reverential service to and/or praise of God – Dr. L. Richards’ Expository Dictionary of Bible Words, p. 640).

in spirit (in the non-material, God-conscious inward part of our being/heart as opposed to a physical place or external ceremony or outward form). 4, 7

and truth (A correct way to the right, one and only God; a clear and definite knowledge of God derived from His special revelation, God’s Word – Jn. 4:22, and from Jesus as recorded in the New Testament, as opposed to a wrong way to a wrong god(s); or a wrong way to the right God, Matt. 15:9; or to false conceptions from imperfect knowledge). 4, 7

John 4:24

spirit/Spirit (invisible, 1 non-corporeal 5, 6, completely spiritual in His essence/nature 4, 7).

John 4:25

Messiah … Christ (see Jn. 1:41 note).

all things (hyperbole – regarding worship, God, and salvation).

John 4:27

with a woman (a rabbi avoided contact with women in public 2 because it was a rabbinical rule 4, 5, 7).

John 4:29

all the things (hyperbole – regarding her immoral life, Jn. 4:18). 5, 6, 7

John 4:32

food (metaphor – spiritual nourishment 5; or metonymy – satisfaction 4, 6 and that is to do and complete God’s will, Jn. 4:34).

John 4:34

the will of Him (that being: to reveal God’s nature, kingdom message, and plan of salvation to people as seen in Jn. 3:34; 17:6; Lk. 19:10; Mk. 1:38). 4, 6

accomplish His work (the redemption/salvation of believers through Jesus’ death payment, 3:17; 17:4; 19:30; Lk. 19:10). 2, 4, 5

John 4:35

the fields (metaphor – people, probably those from Samaria). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

white for harvest (metaphor – spiritually ripe/receptive). 1, 3, 4, 6, 7

John 4:36

reaps (metaphor – those who lead people to faith in Christ). 1

wages (metaphor – the reward of the privilege and joy of leading people to Christ). 1, 3

fruit (metaphor – converts/believers). 6

sows (metaphor – lays the ground work or information for understanding the gospel). 6

John 4:38

others (Old Testament prophets, John the Baptist, Jesus, and/or the woman from the well, Jn. 4:25, 39). 1, 2, 6

John 4:39

believed in Him (ellipsis – as the Savior of the world, Jn. 4:42).

John 4:41

believed (ellipsis – in Jesus as the Savior, Jn. 4:42).

John 4:42

the world (ellipsis – of those who believe, see Jn. 1:29 note).

John 4:44

a prophet has no honor in his own country (proverb – probably referring to Galilee, Jn. 4:43, 48; 6:66; Lk. 4:14, 28-29). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

John 4:45

all the things that He did (i.e., His signs/miracles, Jn. 2:23).

John 4:46

wine [In both the Old and New Testaments, the word “wine” is used for both fermented and unfermented juice of the grape. But wherever, it is clear in the Bible that the wine (Heb. “yayin”) is alcoholic, it’s spoken of with disfavor. However, when the word “wine” (Heb. “tiros” / “tiyrowshe”) means “fresh, unfermented juice”, its use is spoken of as desirable, as in Isa. 62:8. In the New Testament, the Greek word “oinos” is used for both fermented and unfermented wine. Therefore, in the both the Old and New Testaments, it cannot be said that because one drank wine, he was drinking alcohol. Naturally fermented wine ranges in alcohol content from 6% to 14%. After that, it becomes vinegar. Present-day fortified wine has distilled alcohol added to bring the alcohol content up to 20%  –  Texas Alcoholic Narcotics Education, Inc. So, the fact Jesus made and/or drank wine does not mean that He made and/or drank alcohol. All that we know for sure is that it was juice of the grape (or fruit of the vine, as it’s called in Matt. 26:29; Mk. 14:25; Lk. 22:18).].

John 4:48

signs (see John 2:11 note).

wonders (miracles whose effect on their viewers was one of sensationalism, excitement, being startled, and amazement). 4, 7

 

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John 5:2

porticoes (covered patios).

John 5:9

the Sabbath (the 7th day of the week, Saturday, and the Mosaic Law required that work cease so that people could rest and worship, Ex. 20:10-11; 31:15; 35:2; Mk. 1:21 1; it was a sign of the covenant between God and Israel, Ex. 31:16-17, 13; it was for rest and refreshment in their special relationship to God, Deut. 7:6-11; Ex. 23:12, based on the creation rest).

John 5:10, 15-16, 18

the Jews (synecdoche – the Jewish religious leaders; the Pharisees – see Jn. 1:19, 24; 9:16, 18, 22 with Jn. 12:42).

John 5:14

do not sin anymore (no longer continue to sin, which had probably been the cause of his sickness). 3, 5, 6, 7

worse may befall you (euphemism – hell or eternal punishment). 1, 4, 6

John 5:16

on the Sabbath (The Sabbath was made for man’s benefit rather than man made for the Sabbath’s benefit, see Mk. 2:27-28, plus Jesus is the Lord and, therefore, controller over the laws He instituted. It’s lawful to do good on the Sabbath, Matt. 12:12).

John 5:17

My Father is working until now (metaphor – God continually works every day in such things as sustaining the universe, healing people, redeeming man, etc.). 1, 2, 4, 6, 7

I Myself am working (metaphor – Jesus does heavenly work also, not physical labor, just like the Father: healing people, sustaining the universe – Col. 1:17; Heb. 1:3, redeeming man – Lk. 19:10, etc.). 1, 4, 6, 7

John 5:18

breaking the Sabbath (ellipsis – as far as the Pharisees were concerned, but not in actuality, plus there were exceptions to the rule anyway, Jn. 7:22-23; Matt. 12:1-6).

own Father (ellipsis – in a special way, belonging exclusively to Him 3, 5, 6 by nature as opposed to by adoption as believers are; by virtue of sameness in essential nature, that of being God too 3, 4, 7; see Jn. 20:17 note).

equal with God (in Deity 4; in nature, privilege, and power 5; in authority and power 6).

John 5:19

can do nothing of Himself (doesn’t function independently from or in opposition to the Father; isn’t self-initiated; can have no separate interest or action from the Father). 1, 2, 3, 4, 7

something He sees the Father doing (metaphor – while Jesus is on earth, something He learns by revelation from 2, or is directed by 1, or knows intuitively of the Father and His wishes and work 5, 7).

these things the Son also does in like manner (Jesus imitates both the Father’s activities and how He does them 1, 3, 5 because of their identity of nature 7).

John 5:20

shows Him all things … is doing (ellipsis – in working out His eternal plan of redemption of man). 4, 6

greater works (such as raising the dead and judging everyone, Jn. 5:21-22). 1, 2, 3, 4, 6

than these (ellipsis – physical healings 1, 4 and similar miracles 2, 5).

John 5:22

not even the Father judges anyone (ellipsis – directly, but through Jesus, Acts 17:31). 3

all judgment (ellipsis – of the living and the dead, Acts 10:42; Matt. 25:31-33; 2 Cor. 5:10).

John 5:24

hears My word (ellipsis – that I’m the Messiah, Savior, Son of God – Jn. 4:25-26, 42; 5:18-23).

believes Him who sent Me (what the Father says or commands about His Son, the Messiah, 1 Jn. 3:23; Matt. 3:17; 17:5; Isa. 42:1-5; 53:1-12; 62:1-3).

judgment (condemnation to hell, the lake of fire, the second death, eternal punishment, Rev. 20:11-15; 2 Thes. 1:8-10; Rom. 8:1).

death (brachylogy – spiritual death; separation from God spiritually – Eph. 2:1, 5; Gen. 2:17 which will include eternal punishment in hell, the lake of fire – Rev. 20:6, 11-15; 21:8; Rom. 6:23; 2 Thes. 1:8-10).

life (brachylogy – spiritual life 1,2,4,6 which includes eternal life in heaven in God’s/Christ’s kingdom, Eph. 2:6; Jn. 3:16, 18; 6:47; Acts 26:18; 1 Pet. 1:4-9).

John 5:25

an hour (idiom/metonymy – a time).

the dead (ellipsis – spiritually). 2, 3, 4, 6, 7

hear the voice (listen with faith, Jn. 8:43, 47, to His word, Jn. 5:24, regarding who He is, Jn. 5:18-22; 6:29, 35, 46-47).

shall live (ellipsis – spiritually). 3, 4, 6

John 5:26

life (ellipsis/metaphor – spiritual). 6

gave to the Son (ellipsis – in His humanity/incarnation).

John 5:27

Son of Man (see Jn. 1:51 note).

John 5:28

all … shall hear His voice (all the physically dead will be commanded/summoned from their graves). 1, 2

John 5:29

shall come forth (shall be resurrected). 1, 2

those who did the good deeds (only the righteous can do/practice good or righteousness, 1 Jn. 3:7; Matt. 12:34-35, and the righteous are those who have been saved, born again by faith in Christ, Rom. 1:17; 3:22 1; Rom. 9:30; 5:17; only God the Holy Spirit can do/produce goodness, Gal. 5:22, and only believers have the Holy Spirit, Rom. 8:9; Acts 11:15-17, so only believers can do good because of God the Holy Spirit doing it through them, Phil. 2:13, as non-believers can’t do any good as far as God is concerned, Rom. 3:12.).

to a resurrection of life (physically, spiritually, and eternally, which includes believers at the rapture, 1 Thes. 4:16, and the tribulation-period believers/saints, Rev. 20:3-5, together with the Old Testament believers, Dan. 12:1-3; Ezek. 37:12-14; Isa. 26:19-21, at the 2nd coming of Christ to earth 1) – Dr. J. Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come, pp. 395-398.

those who committed the evil deeds (unbelievers, who can only sin/do evil, Rom. 3:10, 12; 8:7-8; Gal. 5:19-21; Gen. 6:5; Isa. 64:6; Matt. 7:18; 12:35; 1 Cor. 2:14).

to a resurrection of judgment (this resurrection for all dead unbelievers will occur at the end of the Millennium, 1000 years after Christ’s 2nd coming to earth, Rev. 20:5, 11-15, and will result in eternal damnation in the lake of fire, hell). 1

John 5:30

I can do nothing on My own initiative (see Jn. 5:19 note).

hear (ellipsis – what My Father says).

John 5:31

If I alone … My testimony is not true (ellipsis – in your estimation 4; it wouldn’t be accepted by the Jewish authorities 1, or admissible as legal evidence based on their law, Jn. 8:17; Deut. 17:6; 19:15 because it was unsupported and, therefore, incomplete 2). 5, 6

John 5:32

He (God the Father, Jn. 5:37).

John 5:33

to the truth (ellipsis – that Jesus was/is the Son of God, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world, Jn. 1:29, 34). 2, 4

John 5:34

the witness which I receive is not from man (Jesus didn’t need 1 or accept mere human testimony 4).

saved (brachylogy – spiritually/eternally saved).

John 5:35

the lamp that was burning (metaphor – John the Baptist gave direction/instruction and hope to Israel – Jn. 5:33). 1, 2

in his light (metaphor – in John’s message of the kingdom of heaven being at hand, Jn. 1:23; Matt. 3:2, the hope of the Messianic Age, when Israel’s enemies would be destroyed). 1, 5

John 5:36

is greater (ellipsis – as it’s demonstrated by miraculous works). 1, 3, 4, 5

John 5:37

He has borne witness of Me (ellipsis – in the Old Testament Scriptures, Jn. 5:38-39; Isa. 53; 61:1-3; etc.). 2, 3, 4, 7

neither heard His voice (these particular Jews apparently were not at Jesus’ baptism when the Father spoke, Matt. 3:17). 5

John 5:38

do not have His word abiding in you (the Old Testament Messianic Scriptures, regarding the person of Jesus Christ, taking root/dwelling/being recognized and accepted by them). 2, 4, 5

John 5:39

Scriptures (i.e., Old Testament).

you think that in them you have eternal life (the Jews thought that by studying, understanding, memorizing, and/or mechanically using the OT, they would get eternal life). 1, 5, 6

John 5:40

come to Me (ellipsis – believing in Me as the Messiah, Jn. 6:35).

life (brachylogy – eternal, spiritual life). 5, 6

John 5:41

I do not receive glory from men (I don’t accept or seek praise/applause from unbelievers). 4, 5

John 5:43

in My Father’s name (metonymy – at His request 4, 5; as His representative 1; on the authority of God the Father 2).

own name (metonymy – own authority). 2

receive (i.e., believe, Jn. 1:12).

John 5:44

glory (honor, acceptance, approval, praise). 1, 2, 4, 5

John 5:45

Do not think … you (Jesus came as Savior in His first coming to earth, not as Judge, Jn. 3:17).

accuses you is Moses (because he wrote about Christ, Jn. 5:46, yet these Jews didn’t believe him). 2

set your hope (put your confidence in and in his writings 2, the first five books of the Old Testament.)

John 5:46

he wrote (in Gen. 3:15; 49:10; 22:18; Deut. 18:15-18). 1, 4

John 5:47

his writings (the Jews held Moses’ writings, the Torah/Pentateuch, above all else). 4

 

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John 6:2

signs (miracles).

John 6:4

Passover (see Jn. 2:13 note).

John 6:6

test him (test his faith 1, 2; see whether he had sympathy for the people and that Jesus could provide for them 4).

John 6:12

lost (wasted). 2, 4, 5

John 6:14

sign (see Jn. 2:11 note).

the Prophet (see Jn. 1:21 note).

John 6:26

saw signs … ate (some people followed Jesus because He healed people, Jn. 6:2, while others sought Him because He fed them).

John 6:27

work (Gk. word “ergazesthe” from “ergon” meaning “acquire or labor”).

John 6:27

Do not work … perishes (at present, stop striving for physical food that has no lasting value 1, 4; laziness isn’t the issue here 1, 5; don’t make food your goal and priority in life).

but for the food which endures (metaphor – spiritual food, Christ Himself, Jn. 6:53). 1, 4

Son of Man (see Jn. 1:51 note).

seal (metonymy – certification/authentication of Jesus’ claim). 1, 3, 4

John 6:28

work (Gk. “ergazometha”).

the works (Gk. “erga”) of God (perform/do the deeds/acts God requires) 1, 2, 5 – Moulton’s The Analytical Greek Lexicon Revised, p. 165; Perschbacher’s Greek Lexicon, p. 171.

John 6:29

work (Gk. “ergon”) of God (action required by God, a singular act/thing) 1, 2 – Perschbacher, p. 171.

believe in Him (ellipsis – as the Savior, Jn. 4:42; Lk. 2:11; Isa. 53:1-12).

John 6:30

work (metonymy – miracle 4, though this word is not found in the Greek text).

John 6:31-32

manna/bread (type – of Christ, being nourishment and life). 4, 5

John 6:32

true bread (metaphor – Jesus Christ). 1, 2, 4, 5

John 6:33

the bread of God (metaphor – Jesus Christ). 1, 2, 3, 5

life (brachylogy – eternal, Jn. 6:27).

the world (metonymy – God’s people in the world 8).

John 6:35

bread of life (metaphor – Jesus Christ, the necessary substance which provides eternal, spiritual life, 6:27). 1, 4, 5

comes (ellipsis – in faith).

shall not hunger … shall never thirst (litotes – will be spiritually, eternally full/satisfied). 1, 2, 3, 4

John 6:37

All … shall come to Me (all the people who the Father predestines/chooses/elects to be saved, Eph. 1:4-5, 11; 2 Thes. 2:13, or gives to Jesus, Jn. 6:44, 65, certainly will come and believe in Him, Jn. 6:44, 65; 10:16; Jas. 1:18; Rom. 8:29-30). 1, 4, 5

not cast out (won’t be rejected, rather the believer is eternally secure, he/she won’t ever lose his/her salvation, Jn. 6:39, 44, 47; Rom. 8:29-30; 11:28-29; Heb. 10:10; Eph. 4:30; 1:13-14; 1 Cor. 3:11-15).

John 6:39

it (heterosis of gender – meaning, the person, Jn. 6:40).

John 6:44, 65

no one can come to Me (ellipsis – in faith in and of themselves, of their own independent will/choice). 1, 2

draws (actually puts the will or want-to in the life/mind/will of a person so that he/she definitely does come in faith). 2, 3, 4, 5

John 6:45

all be taught of God (ellipsis – all God’s chosen people will be illuminated by God, probably a reference to Isa. 54:13; Jer. 31:34 3, 4, 5; this “teaching” of God refers to His inner work that inclines people to accept the truth about Jesus and respond to Him 1).

Everyone who … comes to Me (only God’s chosen/elect hear, spiritually grasp and accept, 8:47, and learn internally from God about Jesus Christ being the Messiah, Matt. 16:16, 17, and therefore, in response, come to Christ 1, 3, 4, 5 and believe 1).

John 6:46

seen the Father (see Jn. 1:18 note).

John 6:47

he who believes has eternal life (Upon believing, the person immediately has eternal life. It doesn’t begin after he/she physically dies, but at the point of initial faith, and it’s eternal, so it can’t be lost). 1, 4

John 6:48

bread of life (see Jn. 6:35).

John 6:49

fathers (ancestors).

manna (the miraculous food provided by God to the Israelites during their wilderness wanderings out of Egypt. It came in the form of a small round seed that could be ground and baked, Ex. 16:14-36).

John 6:50

the bread (metaphor – Jesus Christ).

eat (metaphor – spiritually partake of by believing in, Jn. 6:35). 5

not die (metaphor and litotes – spiritually, but have eternal life). 2

John 6:51

living bread (metaphor – living spiritual nourishment or life-giver).

eats (see Jn. 6:50). 1, 4; 8, p. 826

this bread (metaphor – Jesus Christ). 1

the bread (physical substance which nourishes).

life (brachylogy – spiritual, eternal). 4

the world (ellipsis – of believers, those chosen/predestined by God, Jn. 6:65; Eph. 1:5, 11; Acts 13:48).

My flesh (metonymy – body or life in crucifixion). 1, 2, 3, 4, 6

John 6:53

eat (see Jn. 6:50).

the flesh (metonymy – bodily crucifixion 3, 4, 5; substitutionary death-payment for the believer’s sins).

the Son of Man (see Jn. 1:51 note).

drink (metaphor – spiritually partake of by believing in, Jn. 6:35). 1, 3, 4

His blood (metonymy – Jesus’ sacrificial blood atonement). 1, 3, 4, 5

life (brachylogy – spiritual, eternal life, Jn. 6:51, 54). 5

John 6:54

eats … and drinks … (metaphor – believes in Christ as the redeeming Savior/Messiah, Jn 6:53). 5, 6

John 6:55

My flesh … blood (see Jn. 6:53 note).

true food … true drink (metaphor – spiritually, in that it gives spiritual, eternal life, Jn. 6:54). 1, 4

John 6:56

abides in (metaphor – spiritually remains/dwells in 3; has intimate fellowship/union with 4, 5).

John 6:57

I live because of the Father (I live in My incarnation/humanity; see Jn. 5:26).

eats (see Jn. 6:50 note).

live (ellipsis or metaphor – spiritually, eternally).

John 6:58

the bread (see Jn. 6:35, 48).

fathers (Jewish ancestors, during Moses’ wilderness wanderings).

John 6:60

disciples (followers).

listen to it (accept it). 1, 4, 6

John 6:61

stumble (be offended 1, 5, 7; or metaphor – sin 4)

John 6:62

What then (brachylogy – What will you say then?)

ascending where He was before (rising up to heaven). 1, 4, 5

John 6:63

life (brachylogy – spiritual, eternal life; see Jn. 3:5). 1, 4

the flesh profits nothing (one’s physical humanity 1 is of no benefit, Jn. 1:13; 3:6).

spirit (ellipsis – the work of the Holy Spirit 1; or the breath of God 6; to be understood spiritually, 1 Cor. 2:14).

are life (ellipsis or metaphor – provide spiritual life 1, 2 if believed 4).

John 6:64

knew (ellipsis – in His omniscience as God). 1

who did not believe … betray Him (It appears that Judas, the betrayer, is included in those who did not believe in Jesus as the Savior.).

from the beginning (ellipsis – of His work as Mediator, or of His public ministry). 4

John 6:65

no one can come to Me (see Jn. 6:44 note).

it (i.e., the right and privilege of coming to Jesus).

John 6:66

walking (i.e., associating).

John 6:67

the twelve (brachylogy – disciples).

John 6:68

words of (ellipsis – words that lead to 1, 2, 4 and reveal 3, 5 on how to acquire).

John 6:69

we (synecdoche – all except for Judas, Jn. 13:9-10; 17:12).

have believed … the Holy One of God (belief in Jesus as the Set Apart One of/for God, as Messiah, didn’t necessarily mean they all understood or trusted in Him to be the Redeemer/Savior. See Mk. 1:23-25; Lk. 18:31-34; Jn. 20:9, but rather saw Him as a political Messiah/Christ, Jn. 1:49; 6:15; 12:12-13).

John 6:70

choose you (ellipsis – as My apostles 4, Mk. 3:13-19).

devil (metaphor – representative of Satan because of being possessed and used by him, Jn. 13:2, 27 1, 2, 3, 4; or, an enemy to Christ 5, 7).

 

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John 7:2

the Feast of Booths (or Feast of Tabernacles/Ingathering is one of three great Jewish feasts in October. It was a happy time of thanksgiving for harvest. Devout Jews lived outdoors in booths made of tree branches for seven days as a reminder of God’s provision in the desert during their ancestor’s wilderness wanderings, and it signified that God dwells with His people.). 1, 4

John 7:3

brothers (physical half-brothers, Mary’s other sons through Joseph).

works (see Jn. 6:30 note).

John 7:4

these things (miracles). 3

John 7:6

My time (ellipsis – for going up to the feast, Jn. 7:8 4, 5; to publicly manifest Himself as Messiah, Jn. 7:29, 33; 8:12, 28 6).

your time (ellipsis – to go to the feast). 4

opportune (ready, at any time 4, 5 as far as which day of the week-long feast 6 because they weren’t accountable to anyone for their plans 3).

John 7:7

world (personification – unbelieving, evil mankind as represented by the Jewish religious leaders). 4

cannot hate you (ellipsis – because you are part of it). 1, 2, 4, 5

John 7:8

I do not go up (ellipsis – yet, Jn. 7:6, 10). 1, 4, 5

My time (see Jn. 7:6).

has not yet fully come (isn’t the proper time 3, ordained by God the Father 1, 4).

John 7:13

Jews (the Pharisees, see Jn. 5:10, 15-16, 18).

John 7:15

learned (ellipsis – in the Scriptures and their interpretation). 4, 6

educated (ellipsis – in the rabbinic schools). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

John 7:16

but His who sent Me (i.e., God the Father’s, Jn. 12:49).

John 7:17

His will (God’s will was/is to believe in Jesus Christ, Jn. 6:40). 1

the teaching (what Christ was teaching, probably related to His Messiahship and/or Deity, as in Jn. 7:29, 33). 5

speak from Myself (give My own opinions, independent of God the Father’s). 2, 4, 6, 7

John 7:21

one deed (one miracle, the healing of the lame man in Jn. 5:2-9). 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7

John 7:22

On this account (regarding certain activities being done on the Sabbath that appear to violate it). 4

Moses has given (he gave circumcision in the sense of establishing it as part of the Levitical system, Lev. 12:3).

the fathers (Jewish ancestors, like Abraham). 1

John 7:24

appearance (outward appearance/looks 5, 7; or, superficial understanding). 1, 4, 6

righteous judgment (right/correct/appropriate evaluation). 1, 7

John 7:26

rulers (brachylogy – Jewish religious rulers).

John 7:27

no one knows where He is from (The opinion of some Jews was that the Christ would be unknown until His public appearing). 1, 4

John 7:28

know Me, and know where I am from (irony – they knew Him as the carpenter’s son from Galilee, Jn. 6:42 5, but not as the Messiah from heaven, Jn. 8:19). 1, 4

John 7:30

His hour (metonymy – time to die). 1, 2, 4, 6

John 7:34

where I am (with God the Father in heaven, Jn. 7:34; 6:38).

John 7:35

the Dispersion (Jews scattered throughout the Roman Empire 1, 2, 4, 6, 7; Isa. 11:12; 56:8).

Greeks (metonymy – non-Jews/Gentiles/heathen). 1, 4, 7

John 7:37

thirsty (metaphor – spiritually). 2

drink (metaphor – believe, Jn. 6:35; 7:38).

John 7:38

flow rivers of living water (metaphor – the Holy Spirit be, Jn. 7:39) 1 – Isa. 44:3.

John 7:39

glorified (metonymy – meaning honored/exalted in His crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension, Jn. 12:23-24, 32-33; 17:1, 5) 1, 2, 3, 5Unger’s Bible Dictionary, p. 409; Vine’s, p. 482.

John 7:40

the Prophet (see Jn. 1:21 note).

John 7:41

the Christ (see Jn. 1:41 note).

John 7:45

officers (Temple guards). 1

John 7:46

speak the way this man speaks (ellipsis – with authority and wisdom, Matt. 7:29; 22:46; Lk. 2:47).

John 7:49

accursed (ellipsis – because they didn’t obey the Law of Moses since they didn’t know it in order to obey it, Deut. 28:15).

John 7:50

one of them (i.e., a Pharisee, Jn. 3:1).

John 7:52

You are not also from Galilee? (an insult and accusation by fellow members of the Jewish religious hierarchy against Nicodemus as being as ignorant as the Galileans). 1, 4

out of Galilee (the religious hierarchy thought that Jesus was born in Galilee, and therefore, wouldn’t qualify to be the Messiah, Jn. 7:41-42; Micah 5:2).

John 7:53 – 8:11

(These verses are not found in most of the old manuscripts, and almost all textual schools agree that these verses were not part of the original manuscript). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

 

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John 8:6

have grounds for accusing Him (ellipsis – because if Jesus didn’t condemn her, He would be disagreeing with the Law of Moses). 1, 4, 5

John 8:12

the light of the world (metaphor – the source of illumination regarding salvation, eternal life, for both Jew and Gentile). 4

follows Me (metonymy – believes Me). 1, 4

walk in (metaphor – live/dwell in).

darkness (metaphor – spiritual and moral ignorance and sin). 1, 4

light of life (metaphor – illumination that springs from and issues in eternal, spiritual life 3, 5, 6; Jesus 1)

John 8:14

you don’t know… (that I am from and going back to heaven). 1, 4, 5, 6

John 8:15

the flesh (metaphor – human standards; external, superficial appearances). 1, 4, 5

not judging (not passing sentence; see Jn. 3:17 note).

John 8:17

two men (see Deut. 17:6; 19:15-19).

John 8:18

witness of Myself (ellipsis – that I’m the light of the world).

John 8:19

Where is Your Father? (The Pharisees thought He was talking about His human father.). 1

You know neither Me (ellipsis – as Messiah, God’s Son; see Jn. 7:28 also).

nor My Father (see Jn. 8:55).

John 8:20

His hour (time to die; see Jn. 7:30 note).

John 8:21

where I am going, you can’t come (that is, to heaven, Jn. 3:13; 8:23).

sin (sinful state and have to eternally pay for it).

John 8:22

you cannot come (The Pharisees thought He was going to Sheol/Hades by killing Himself.).

John 8:24

I am (He) (that is, God – the name God gave for Himself in Ex. 3:14, and Savior, Isa. 43:10-13). 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7

John 8:28

lift up (ellipsis – on a cross, Jn. 3:14, to be crucified). 1, 4, 5

Son of Man (see Jn. 1:51 note).

then you will know (ellipsis – by My last words before My death and the events surrounding My death and resurrection, Matt. 27:51-54; 28:2-4, 11; Lk. 23:44-48; Mk. 15:33, 37-39). 2, 5

I do nothing on My own (see Jn. 5:19 note; Phil. 2:5-8).

John 8:31

believed Him (intellectually/mentally believed His message without personally committing to/trusting in Him 1 as the Savior 4, but that He was only a political Messiah, Jn. 6:15 6).

abide (continue 1, 3, 5, 6, 7; remain; obey as the rule of your life 4).

disciples (followers and learners). 1

John 8:32

know (ellipsis – experientially 3, 4; to acknowledge as one’s own 4).

the truth (metonymy – regarding Christ’s work in salvation). 1, 4, 6

free (metaphor – spiritually, from bondage to sin). 1, 3, 4, 6

John 8:33

have never yet been enslaved (though under Roman control politically and nationally to a certain degree, the Jews here hadn’t been slaves personally to anyone). 1

John 8:34

the slave of sin (when a person does something because he’s under its power and authority, then he’s a slave of it, in bondage to it, Rom. 6:16; 2 Pet. 2:19). 1

of sin (personification).

John 8:35

the slave (metaphor – the unbeliever who’s in bondage to sin by nature).

the house (metonymy – the family, God’s family 3; God’s chosen person racially, the Jew).

the son (metaphor – the spiritual son or the believer in Christ as Savior, Jn. 1:12; Gal. 3:26). 1, 4

John 8:36

free (see Jn. 8:32).

John 8:37

My word has no place in you (litotes – you’re rejecting My message, as in Jn. 8:24). 1, 4

John 8:38, 41

father (metaphor – the devil, Jn. 8:44).

John 8:39

father (physical and spiritual ancestral father). 1, 4

do the deeds of (believe 3, and obey like). 1, 4, 5

John 8:41

We were not born of fornication (We’re not an illegitimate race, only pretending to be God’s chosen people). 3

we have one Father, even God (the Creator-Father 4, Mal. 2:10 and spiritual Father 6).

John 8:43

hear (metonymy – spiritually grasp and accept, 1 Cor. 2:14 1; idiom – understand/receive/believe 8, p. 829).

John 8:44

father (metaphor – spiritually 3 and morally 4; like in nature and practice, 1 Jn. 3:8, 10 4, 7).

from the beginning (ellipsis – of the history of the human race). 4, 7

father of (metaphor – originator or author of). 5

John 8:46

convicts me of sin (can prove Me guilty of sin 1).

John 8:47

hears [idiom – When the verb “hears” is followed by the accusative case (the direct object, here it’s, “the words of God”), its meaning is “to hear with understanding and obedience/faith”] 2; 8, p. 828

John 8:48

a Samaritan (a heretic or of faulty worship 1; not a true Israelite 2, 3; a half-breed or impure 4; an enemy 5, 6, 7).

John 8:50

who seeks (ellipsis – My glory/honor, Jn. 5:23).

John 8:51

keeps My word (i.e., observes My message, as in Jn. 8:24 or Jn. 6:27, 29, believing in Him as Messiah/Savior).

death (spiritual death; see Jn. 5:24 note). 4

John 8:52

taste of (metaphor – experience). 1

death (ellipsis – physical death). 2, 4

John 8:54

glorify (honor). 1, 3, 5

John 8:55

know Him (deeply, intimately, personally, experientially). 1, 4, 6

John 8:56

My day (metaphor – the Messianic time of salvation). 1, 4, 6

he saw (ellipsis and metaphor – in the birth of his son, Isaac; a prophetic foresight, as in Heb. 11:13, in the genealogical line through which the Messiah would come to bless all the nations, Gen. 12:3; 15:6). 1, 4

John 8:58

I Am (see Jn. 8:24 note).

John 8:59

picked up stones (ellipsis – to kill Him. It was the punishment for blasphemy, which they thought Jesus committed because He was claiming to be God, but they didn’t believe it). 1, 2, 4

 

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John 9:2

who sinned, this man (some Jews believed that babies could sin in the womb, based on verses like Gen. 25:22-26; Psa. 58:3 1, 4. Other Jews believed in the pre-existence of the soul in another body 2, 5).

his parents (The disciples believed that sin directly caused all suffering, whether the parents’ sin, based on Ex. 20:5; Ezek. 18:4, or the suffering person’s sin.). 1

John 9:3

works (metonymy – miracles showing God’s attributes). 4, 5

John 9:4

work the works (do the will). 1, 5

day (metaphor – the time allotted to do God’s will). 1, 3, 5

night (metaphor – the limit set to do God’s works/will 3; death). 1, 5

John 9:5

the light of the world (see Jn. 8:12 note).

John 9:11

anointed (rubbed, daubed, applied something to, Jn. 9:15). 4

John 9:14

a Sabbath (see Jn. 5:16 note).

John 9:16

He does not keep the Sabbath (according to some of the Pharisee’s interpretation of the Mosaic Law, but not according to Jesus’ understanding of it, Jn. 7:23-24; Matt. 12:5, 8, 11-12). 4

John 9:18

the Jews (synecdoche – some of the Pharisees, Jewish religious rulers, Jn. 9:15-16). 2, 4, 7

John 9:21

of age (brachylogy – legal age, to testify 1; age of 13 and up 4).

John 9:22

the Jews (see Jn. 9:18 note).

put out of (euphemism – excommunicated from). 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7

John 9:24

a sinner (a bad person 5; not God-fearing and/or doesn’t do God’s will, Jn. 9:31).

John 9:27

listen (idiom – believe 8, p. 829).

John 9:27-28

disciples (see Jn. 8:31 note).

reviled (scolded).

John 9:29

we do not know… (see Jn. 8:14 note).

John 9:31

hear sinners (respond to the prayers of those who continue in sin, willfully disobeying God’s law, and/or who don’t continue do to His will – Psa. 66:18; Prov. 1:28; 28:9; Isa. 59:2).

God-fearing (a worshiper of or devoted to the true God). 4, 6, 7

He hears him (answers the prayers of the righteous, Prov. 15:29; Jas. 5:16). 4

John 9:33

do nothing (ellipsis – miraculous). 1

John 9:34

born entirely in sins (see Jn. 9:2 note).

put him out (euphemism and ellipsis – excommunicated and threw him out of the synagogue, Jn. 9:22). 1

John 9:35

Son of Man (see Jn. 1:51 note).

John 9:38

worshiped Him (showing that many Jews understood the Messiah 1, the Son of Man, to be God).

John 9:39

for judgment (paradox with Jn. 3:17 – for separating the believers from the unbelievers 2, 5, 6, 7; for pronouncing verdicts upon those He came into contact with, Matt. 23:15; 15:13-14; 19:28; Lk. 7:48-50; Jn. 17:12).

those who don’t see may see (metaphor – those who don’t claim to know all about salvation and the Messiah/Son of Man and who He is may see spiritually and accept Jesus for who He is).

those who see may become blind (metaphor – those who claim to know all about salvation, the Messiah/son of Man, and who He is may be spiritually blind to and reject Jesus).

John 9:40

not blind too (metaphor – spiritually). 1

John 9:41

blind (metaphor and ellipsis – to spiritual things absolutely 1; not claiming to know all about the Son of Man and that I couldn’t be Him.).

have no sin (ellipsis – regarding your rejection of Me as Messiah). 2

We see (metaphor – spiritually 2; know all about who the Son of Man is and is not).

sin remains (ellipsis – of rejecting Me). 2

 

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John 10:1-6

he who … the voice of strangers (parable 1, 2, 5, 7; allegory 4, which is one form of the parable 6).

John 10:7

door (metaphor – entrance way in to God’s provision and privileges for them 1, 3, the blessings of salvation, Jn. 14:6 4 and the kingdom of God 6, 7).

the sheep (metaphor – believers; those for whom Christ died, who obtain eternal life, who heed His voice and follow Him, Jn. 10:4, 9, 11, 14, 28). 4

John 10:8

All (Jewish religious and/or political leaders who pretended to care for Israel 1, 2, 3, 5; false Messiahs and self-appointed leaders 6).

thieves and robbers (those who steal the devotion, possessions, honor, obedience, and worship due God and spiritually kill those they rob).

sheep (see Jn. 10:7 note).

hear (listen and respond positively to in faith 3, 5; obey 4).

John 10:9

door (see Jn. 10:7 note).

enters through Me (metaphor and ellipsis – has faith in as the spiritual Messiah). 4, 5

saved (kept safe 1, 6; spiritually and given eternal life, Jn. 10:10, 28; 3:16-17). 4

go in and out (metaphor – have freedom from real harm and danger 4, both spiritually and eternally).

find pasture (metaphor – be provided for 1, 5; or find new satisfaction 2). 3

John 10:10

thief (parable/metaphor – such as the Pharisees, Matt. 23:15 4 and chief priests 1, 5; see Jn. 10:8).

life (brachylogy – spiritual 2; eternal 4, 6).

abundantly (with an overflowing measure of grace, joy, peace, etc.). 4

John 10:11

good shepherd (metaphor – the One who gives His life for the well-being of His sheep/people). 2, 4

the sheep (see Jn. 10:7; believers/the elect/the predestined, Rom. 8:30-35; Acts 20:28; Eph. 1:5, 7; Jn. 6:44, 65). 4

John 10:12-13

hireling (metaphor – a false/pretending caretaker who’s interested in the money/pay and self preservation 1, 5, like the Pharisees 4).

the owner (Jesus owns believers, as He bought them with His blood, 1 Cor. 6:20; Acts 20:28).

wolf (metaphor – danger and harm).

John 10:14-15

know (ellipsis – experientially, relationally, truly). 3, 4, 5, 6

John 10:15

lay down (euphemism – sacrifice/give as a substitution). 1, 3, 5

the sheep (metaphor – believers, probably Jewish ones 1, 3, 5; see Jn. 10:11 note).

John 10:16

other sheep (metaphor – Gentile believers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; the Church/Christians, Acts 20:28; Eph. 5:25-27).

this fold (metaphor – Jewish believers). 4, 5, 6

must (as they are predestined, Rom. 8:29-30; Eph. 1:5, 11; 2 Thes. 2:13; 2 Tim. 1:9, given to Him by God the Father, Jn. 6:37, 39; 10:29). 4

bring them (ellipsis – to salvation). 1

hear (see Jn. 10:8 note).

My voice (My message, that I’m the Savior-Messiah, Jn. 10:9-11).

one flock (metaphor – one spiritual family or church, Eph. 2:11-19; 3:6; 4:4 1, 2, 5 of which there can be many folds 6 or scattered sheep 7; Jewish and Gentile believers together).

one shepherd (metaphor – one owner, head, protector, provider, leader 1; Jesus Christ 5, 6).

John 10:17

I lay down (euphemism – prophetically viewing His sacrifice as already accomplished). 4, 6

take it again (euphemism – be resurrected). 1, 3, 4, 5, 6

John 10:18

has taken it away from Me (euphemism – could kill Jesus without His consent). 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

lay it down (euphemism – sacrifice it).

This commandment (ellipsis – to die, Jn. 3:14, for the sheep/believers, Jn. 10:15). 2, 3, 4

John 10:22

the Feast of the Dedication (Hanukkah or the Feast of Lights commemorates the reconstruction of the temple by Judas Maccabees in 165 B.C. after its destruction in 168 B.C. by Antiochus IV Epiphanes. It was an eight day feast in December.).

John 10:25

works (i.e., miracles).

name (i.e., authority).

John 10:26

My sheep (metaphor – God’s elect 1; those that belong to Christ 2; those predestined and given to Christ by God the Father 4, 5; see Jn. 10:16 “must”).

John 10:27

My sheep (see Jn. 10:7, 16 note).

hear (see Jn. 10:8 note).

know (see Jn. 10:14 note).

John 10:28

never perish (never be spiritually separated from God and ruined in hell; see Jn. 3:16 1). 5

no one shall snatch them… (metaphor – no one can steal/take believers away from Jesus’ possession, ownership, and protection as He already purchased them with His blood, Acts 20:28; Eph. 1:7, 14; Titus 2:14; 1 Pet. 1:18-19; Rev. 5:9, and gave them eternal life, which began at the initial point of believing, Jn. 6:47; 5:24; 3:36, and they are guaranteed glorification in heaven by virtue of their being predestined to such, Rom. 8:29-30; Eph. 1:7, 11-14; 2:4-6; 4:30; 2 Thes. 2:13; 2 Tim. 1:9 and are, therefore, eternally secure in their salvation, Rom. 11:29; Heb. 10:10; 1 Cor. 3:13-15; Jn. 6:37, 39). 2, 4, 5

John 10:29

all (ellipsis – created beings).

John 10:30

are one (ellipsis – in nature or essence, such as in supreme power to protect, as seen in Jn. 10:28-29). 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7

John 10:31

took up stones (ellipsis – to kill Him because they considered what He said in vs. 30 as blasphemy, making Himself out to be God, Jn. 10:33). 2, 3, 4, 5

John 10:33

blasphemy (claiming the rights and powers that belong to God alone, as in Jn. 10:28-30, Dr. L. Richards’, Expository Dictionary of Bible Words, p. 130).

make Yourself out to be God (by His interpretation of the Sabbath, Matt. 12:8, and His words about His union/unity with God the Father in work and essence, Jn. 5:17-23; 8:12-58; 10:7-30). 1, 3, 4

John 10:34

your Law (metonymy – the Old Testament, such as in Psa. 82:6). 1, 2, 3, 4, 6

gods (Hebrew metaphor – men appointed as judges/rulers who were to judge for/on behalf of God, and not that they had a divine nature 1; they were divinely commissioned, had a divine office, and represented divine justice 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7).

John 10:35

to whom the word of God came (the written Law of Moses, God’s Word, was used as the basis for these judges’ decisions). 4

cannot be broken (has no errors in it 1, 5; is inspired, infallible, authoritative 4).

John 10:36

sanctified (ellipsis – set apart 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 as Mediator and Savior 4, 5).

I said (in Jn. 5:18-30).

Son of (metaphor – meaning, characterized by being 7; 9, pp. 1060-1062).

Son of God (antonomasia – to say you’re “the” Son of God was to say you were/are “God”, and that’s how the Jews understood it, Lk. 22:67-71; Matt. 26:63-66. Also compare Jn. 10:33 with Jn. 19:7 to see that “God” and “Son of God” are the same or one in Being/essence, but not necessarily one in person, as seen in Jn. 10:30, Father “and” Son, two persons who are one in essence/Being. To say that God is your own/unique Father, by nature, is to say that you are God’s own/unique Son, by nature, or equal with God or one with God in essence/nature, Jn. 5:18; 10:29-30. See Jn. 1:14, 18 also).

John 10:37

works (metonymy – miracles; see Jn. 7:30; 6:30). 1, 3, 5

John 10:38

the Father is in Me, and I in the Father (oneness 1; We have essential oneness or identicalness in essence, Jn. 10:30 3, 4, 5, 6; deity 6).

John 10:41

sign (miracle).

 

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John 11:2

anointed (applied/poured upon 1; ellipsis – rubbed the feet of).

John 11:3

love (to have a fond affection for). 9

John 11:4

death (ellipsis – permanent death). 1, 4, 5, 6, 7

the glory (honor/praise, by showing Christ’s resurrection power). 2, 5

John 11:5

loved (is the Greek word “agapa” meaning, “intelligently, intentionally willing the best for another, as in the attitude of God toward Christ and toward believers”, Dr. T. Meithe, The Compact Dictionary of Doctrinal Words, p. 131).

John 11:9

twelve hours in the day (the Jewish day 4, 5; the allotted time to do God’s will 4).

walks in the day (metaphor – lives/operates/functions in God’s will 1, 2, 4, 5; follows God’s will 4).

stumble (metaphor – suffer real harm until God’s appointed time 1, 2, 4; trip on or be hindered by some obstacle and not achieve God’s will 6; fail God’s plan 4).

sees the light (ellipsis – of God’s will or plan).

John 11:10

walks in the night (metaphor – lives/operates/functions out of God’s will and in self-will instead). 2, 5, 6

stumbles (does not achieve God’s will). 4

light (ellipsis – of God’s plan). 6

John 11:11

fallen asleep (euphemism or metaphor – died, Jn. 11:13-14. Also see Acts 7:60; Matt. 27:52; 1 Thes. 4:13). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

awaken him out of sleep (euphemism or metaphor – resurrect, Jn. 11:23 2, 4, 5, him from physical death).

John 11:15

not there (ellipsis – to prevent his death by healing his sickness, Jn. 11:21, 32).

believe (have your faith strengthened). 1, 2, 4, 5

John 11:24

on the last day (ellipsis – of time when God’s judgment takes place, Jn. 5:28-29). 5

John 11:25

I am the resurrection (metaphor – the epitome of life from the dead, and the one who is the source of and has the power to raise people from the dead). 3, 4, 5

and the life (metaphor – the source and giver of life both physically and spiritually/eternally). 4, 7

believes in Me (ellipsis – as the Messiah/Christ – Savior – Son of God, Jn. 11:27; Lk. 2:11; Isa. 53:1-12).

live (metaphor – spiritually, eternally). 1, 2, 4

dies (physically). 1, 4, 5, 6

John 11:26

lives (brachylogy – physically).

die (metaphor or ellipsis – spiritually 1, 2, 5, 6; litotes – but shall most certainly live forever 4 spiritually).

John 11:27

the Christ (see Jn. 1:41; He was known in the Old Testament to be the Son of God, Psa. 2:2, 7; Jn. 1:34, 41, 49; 10:24, 36; Matt. 16:16, and Savior and Lord/God, Lk. 2:11; Isa. 53:1-12).

Son of God (see Jn. 10:36 note).

He who comes into the world (antonomasia – The Coming One was a Messianic title, Jn. 6:14; 1:9-10).

John 11:33

deeply moved in spirit (angered within 6, 7 probably directed toward Satan and/or sin, which brought sorrow, sickness, and death into the world 1, 2, or because of people’s unbelief 1, and He was sympathetic in spirit 4).

troubled (agitated 1; the outward expression of His inward displeasure 3, 7 with sin, death, and Satan 1).

John 11:40

glory (see Jn. 11:4).

John 11:45

believed in Him (see Jn. 11:25 note).

John 11:47

signs (miracles).

John 11:48

all men (hyperbole – the Jewish people in general). 1, 2

believe in Him (follow Him as Messiah, especially politically). 2, 4, 5

our place (the temple 1, 2 and/or Jerusalem). 4, 5, 6, 7

John 11:49

nothing at all (hyperbole – don’t know how to deal with this situation). 5, 6

John 11:50

expedient (i.e., advisable, beneficial).

one man should die for the people (that Jesus should be sacrificed rather than Israel be destroyed by Rome). 1, 3, 4, 6

die (ellipsis – as a sacrificial atonement). 1, 2, 4

John 11:51

this he did not say on his own initiative … he prophesied (Caiaphas as high priest, whose office symbolized the reception of God’s revealed will, was guided by God to give a divine prediction without realizing the significance of what he was saying). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

for the nation (synecdoche – Jewish believers).

John 11:52

not for the nation only, but … the children of God… (synecdoche – not for Jewish believers only, but Gentile believers from around the world). 1, 2, 4, 6, 7

one (ellipsis – body, Church, Eph. 2:11-16).

John 11:55

the Passover (see Jn. 2:13 note).

to purify themselves (metaphor – ceremonially according to Mosaic law, Num. 9:10; 2 Chron. 30:17-18). 3, 4, 5, 6

 

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John 12:3

anointed (poured upon, Matt. 26:12 4; see Jn. 11:2 note).

John 12:5

denarii/pence (approximately one day’s average wage). 4

John 12:6

the money box (Jesus’ discipleship group’s money box). 4

John 12:7

may keep it for the day of My burial (may keep it, the custom of anointing in anticipation of My burial, Matt. 26:12). 2, 4, 5, 6, 7

John 12:11

going away (ellipsis – departing from Bethany where Lazarus lived). 4

John 12:13

Hosanna (in Hebrew means, “save now” or “please save”, Psa. 118:25). 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7

Blessed (means, praised or spoken well of). 7

the King of Israel (see Jn. 1:49 note).

John 12:14

young donkey (symbolized – the peaceful character of Jesus, the king of Israel). 1, 2, 4, 6

sat on it (This doesn’t contradict Matt. 21:7, where it mentions both a donkey and a colt. But when it says Jesus sat on them, it could be a synecdoche, where He actually just sat on the colt 4, though it seems to include the mother in the figure of speech. Or, He could have sat on each one part of the way. 1 Or, He sat on the garments, which were on the colt, and the “on them” refers to the “garments” rather than to the donkey and the colt 6).

John 12:15

Daughter of (metaphor – meaning, people of). 1, 4, 9

Zion (metonymy – Jerusalem, which was built on Mt. Zion). 1, 4

John 12:16

was glorified (See Jn. 7:39 note. Probably at Pentecost when the Holy Spirit came to instruct them, Jn. 16:13). 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

were written of Him (ellipsis – in Zech. 9:9). 1, 4

John 12:18

sign (miracle).

John 12:19

the world (hyperbole – meaning, the people in Jerusalem in general, which included pilgrims from different parts of the world who were at the Passover 4, 5; or synecdoche – for multitudes of people of all sorts 8, p. 638).

John 12:23

the hour (metonymy – the time). 4, 5

Son of Man (see Jn. 1:51 note).

glorified (see Jn. 7:39 note).

John 12:24

unless a grain of wheat… (parable – death is necessary for a harvest 1; Jesus’ death is the key to spiritual fruitfulness 2, 4, 5; to spiritual children).

John 12:25

loves his life (idolizes or has as a higher priority a self-centered life, which can include materialism, family, worldly pursuits/goals 1, 4, 5; see Matt. 10:37-39; 16:24-26; Mk. 8:34-38; Lk. 9:23-26; 17:32-33).

loses it (perishes everlastingly 4, and forfeits eternal life in heaven 5).

hates his life in this world (gives up or dies to a self-centered life or undergoes a spiritual death to self, Rom. 6:1-14; 2 Cor. 5:14-15; Gal. 6:14; in order to live for Christ and the gospel, Mk. 8:3, 5). 1, 4, 5

shall keep it to eternal life (shall get eternal life in heaven). 4, 5

John 12:26

If any one serves Me, let him follow Me (ellipsis – in a life of denying self or even martyrdom, in order to seek and to save the lost, Matt. 16:2-25; Lk. 19:10; Mk. 1:17-20). 4, 5

where I am, there shall My servant also be (ellipsis – in presence and spiritual companionship hereafter in heaven, Jn. 14:3; 17:24). 4, 5, 6

will honor him (with rewards, including reigning with Christ in His kingdom, 2 Tim. 2:12; Lk. 19:16-19; Rev. 5:10).

John 12:27

My soul has become troubled (My life is in emotional turmoil/agitation). 1, 4

this hour (metonymy – this time of suffering and death on the cross, Jn. 13:1). 1, 3, 4, 6

this purpose (ellipsis – to die for the sins of the world 1, 3, 4, that is, the elect/chosen/predestined ones of the world, Jn. 12:24; 10:15; 19:30).

John 12:28

glorify (bring praise/honor to).

Your name (Your personage, who You are 6; explained in Matt. 28:19 7).

glorified it (at Jesus’ baptism and transfiguration, Mk. 1:11; 9:7 3 and in the life, work, and miracles of Jesus 2, 5). 4

will glorify it again (in Jesus’ death, resurrection, and ascension). 2

John 12:30

for your sakes (ellipsis – that you might believe in Me).

John 12:31

judgment is upon this world (ellipsis – of people who rejected Jesus as Savior and/or Messiah). 2, 4

the ruler of this world shall be cast out (ellipsis – Satan, Eph. 2:2; 6:11-12 from his power and dominion, through sin and death, over people who become believers). 1, 4

John 12:32

lifted up (see Jn. 8:28 and Jn. 12:33 notes).

all men (all believers from both Jew and Gentile, Jn. 10:16; 11:52; Rev. 5:9; the elect/chosen/predestined by God, Jn. 6:44 4, not every person in the world inclusively 1, 6; 8, p. 616).

John 12:33

the kind of death (crucifixion). 2, 3, 4, 6

John 12:34

the Law (the Old Testament Scriptures).

the Christ (see Jn. 1:41 note).

Son of Man (see Jn. 1:51 note).

John 12:35

the light (metaphor – Jesus Christ, see Jn. 8:12). 1

Walk (metaphor – live spiritually, by accepting the light, Christ). 4

darkness (see Jn. 8:12 note).

John 12:36

the light (Jesus Christ).

sons of light (metaphor – characterized by light; lights 4; children of God 5).

John 12:37

signs (miracles).

John 12:38

report (gospel). 5

arm of the Lord (anthropomorphism and metonymy – power of God as manifested in Jesus and His miracles). 1, 4

revealed (understood 1 and accepted). 4

John 12:39

For this cause (because they couldn’t understand, 1 Cor. 2:14, and because God blinded their eyes spiritually, Jn. 12:40). 6

John 12:40

blinded their eyes (metaphor – made the majority of Jews incapable of seeing spiritually that the miracles of Jesus were evidences of His being the Christ, Son of God). 4

hardened their heart (metaphor – made the majority of Jews incapable of understanding or accepting spiritually, the preaching of Jesus as Messiah). 4

heal them (metaphor – spiritually; forgive them of all their sins, 1 Pet. 2:24).

John 12:41

he saw His glory (ellipsis – in a vision, Isa. 1:1; 6:1, 3, Isaiah saw Jesus’/the Lord’s glory). 1, 4, 5

he spoke of Him (of Jesus Christ in Isaiah 4:2; 7:14; 9:6-7; 11:1-5, 10; 32:1; 42:1-4; 49:1-7; 52:13 – 53:12; 61:1-3). 1, 4

John 12:42

confessing Him (ellipsis – publicly).

John 12:44

he who believes … does not believe in Me, but in Him… (paradox and ellipsis – does not exclusively believe in Me, but in God the Father also… 4, 6; or, doesn’t believe in Me as if only a mere man was speaking, but in God 5).

John 12:45

beholds Me beholds the One who sent Me (ellipsis – beholds the works and character of Me, who is the perfect physical manifestation of God the Father whose works and character are the same, but who is Spirit / invisible, Jn. 4:24; Heb. 1:3; Col. 1:15). 1, 5

John 12:46

as light (simile – illuminating the way to spiritual salvation and a knowledge of God). 4

believes in Me (ellipsis – as Savior and/or Messiah).

darkness (see Jn. 8:12 note).

John 12:47

sayings and does not keep them (such as in Jn. 6:27, 29, 35, 47, 53; 7:38; 8:24; 10:9, 38; 12:36, that He’s the Savior-Messiah).

I do not judge him (ellipsis – at this time, but I will execute judgment later, Jn. 5:22, 27; Rev. 3:21; 20:11-15; Matt. 25:31-46; see Jn. 3:17 also). 4

save the world (see Jn. 3:17).

John 12:48

My sayings (see Jn. 12:47 note).

one who judges him (that is, Christ’s word, as in Jn. 5:17-47; 8:24). 4, 5

the last day (judgment day, Rev. 20:11-15). 4, 5

John 12:50

His commandment is eternal life (ellipsis – God’s commandment as to what I, Jesus, should say is eternal life, in that, those who believe what I say about how to acquire it, will get eternal life, Jn. 6:47, 54, 63, 68). 4

 

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John 13:1

the Passover (see Jn. 2:13 note).

knowing (in His omniscience as God; see Jn. 2:24; 6:64 1 notes).

loved (see Jn. 11:5 note).

His own (His sheep, Jn. 10:14-15 1, 4; believers).

John 13:2

supper (the Passover supper). 4

heart (metonymy – mind). 5

John 13:3

all things (all sovereign authority 1, 2 and possession of heaven and earth, Jn. 3:35). 5

John 13:8

no part with Me (no fellowship with Christ 6; can’t be a disciple of Mine because of your pride/sin or uncooperativeness 5, 6).

John 13:10

has bathed (double meaning: both literally and metaphorically. Metaphorically – positionally has been forgiven and spiritually cleansed entirely at the point of salvation faith). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

needs only to wash his feet (double meaning: both literally and metaphorically. Metaphorically – be experientially forgiven for daily sins through daily confession, 1 Jn. 1:9). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

you are clean (metaphor – spiritually, Jn. 15:3 2, 4, 5, 6; forgiven of your sins positionally, Col. 2:13-14).

not all of you (not Judas, Jn. 13:11; 6:70-71; 17:12 who was never converted/saved). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

John 13:14

you ought to wash one another’s feet (literally, as an act of love, humility, and servanthood). 1, 2, 4, 5, 6

John 13:15

an example that you also should do (literally, if in that setting with dusty roads, foot sandals, and walking as the mode of travel). 1, 2, 4

John 13:16

greater than (litotes and ellipsis – superior to or more important than and so be exempt from what his master does or gets).

John 13:17

blessed (happy 1, 3, 5, 6, 7 or objects of God’s favor 4).

John 13:18

I do not speak of all of you (being blessed, that is, if they copied His example, Jn. 13:17, because He knew Judas wasn’t going to). 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

I know the ones I have chosen (ellipsis – as apostles, Jn. 6:70). 1, 4, 6, 7

that the Scripture may be fulfilled (Jesus chose Judas as an apostle in order that Scripture prophecy would be fulfilled, Psa. 41:9b). 4

John 13:19

that I am He (see Jn. 8:24 note).

John 13:20

he who receives whomever I send receives Me (metaphor – as the disciples represented Jesus).

John 13:21

troubled in spirit (emotionally hurt 3, 5 and angered 1, 4, as well as spiritually hurt 7).

John 13:23

reclining on (because they sat or reclined on the floor, oriental style, around the table). 2, 4, 6, 7

one of His disciples, whom Jesus loved (the apostle John, Jn. 21:20, 24). 1, 4, 5, 6

John 13:28

No one … knew… (Since the disciples didn’t know what Jesus meant, they apparently missed what Jesus said or meant in Jn. 13:26). 1, 2, 4, 6

John 13:31

Son of Man (see Jn. 1:51 note).

glorified (honored, in His death). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

John 13:32

glorify Him immediately (ellipsis – through His resurrection and ascension). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

John 13:33

little children (metaphor – an expression of tender affection/love). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Where I am going you cannot come (ellipsis – now/yet in My going to heaven, Jn. 13:36). 1, 4, 5

John 13:34

new (in the kind, degree, or extent). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

even as I have loved you (that is, sacrificially). 1, 4, 5, 7

John 13:35

all men (ellipsis – who know about Christ and His love).

John 13:38

deny Me (ellipsis – deny knowing Me, or disown Me). 1, 4

 

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John 14:1

heart (inner being, feelings 4 and/or mind). 6, 7

believe also in Me (renew your trust in Me, Christ, in view of My betrayal and crucifixion). 1, 2, 4

John 14:2

Father’s house (metaphor – heaven, Psa. 33:13-14). 1, 2, 4, 5, 6

John 14:3

I will come again (at the Rapture, 1 Thes. 4:13-17 1; at His second coming 4, 5, 6).

John 14:6

the way (ellipsis – the only way to God the Father and heaven). 1, 3, 4, 5, 7

the truth (metaphor – the reality 5, 7; the dependable source of redemptive revelation). 4

the life (metaphor – the source, giver, and the means of obtaining eternal life). 3, 4, 7

John 14:7

had known Me (ellipsis – had really or more fully understood My person and mission). 1, 2, 4, 5, 6

from now on (from this time/point, Jn. 16:30). 3, 4

have seen Him (by seeing Christ, who is the visible expression of the Father’s essence/nature, Jn. 14:9; Col. 1:15; Heb. 1:3). 5, 6

John 14:9

has seen Me has seen the Father (see Jn. 14:7 note). 1, 3

John 14:10-11

I am in the Father, and the Father is in Me (metaphor – spiritually; in spiritual oneness/union with). 1

John 14:11

works (miracles).

John 14:12

believes in Me (ellipsis – as Savior-Messiah).

he (synecdoche – those believers who are given the gifts of miracles, healings, or evangelism, 1 Cor. 12:9-10; Eph. 4:11).

greater works (greater miracles in extent/quantity and in kind, spiritual miracles, such as in Acts 2:41, where 3000 people became believers at one time). 1, 2, 3, 4, 6

because I go (ellipsis – and will send the Holy Spirit to empower you, Jn. 14:16-17; 16:7; Acts 1:8). 1, 2, 5, 6

John 14:13

whatever you ask (ellipsis – that’s needed to accomplish My or God’s will). 1

you (This promise was specifically given to Jesus’ 11 apostles.).

John 14:13-14

in My name (metonymy – in line/harmony/consistency with Christ’s person/character 4, 7 and words, Jn. 15:7 5, and therefore, includes what must be according to God’s will, 1 Jn. 5:14-15 1, 2).

that the Father may be glorified in the Son (the purpose or goal of answered prayer is the Father being honored by His Son being honored). 5

John 14:14

ask Me (prayer to Jesus is proper, Acts 7:59). 1, 6

John 14:16

Helper/Counselor/Comforter (the Holy Spirit, Jn. 14:17, 26).

John 14:17

Spirit of truth (the Holy Spirit, Jn. 14:16, 26, who communicated, guided into – Jn. 16:13, or illuminated truth). 1, 2, 4, 6, 7

He abides with you and will be in you (Prior to Pentecost, the Holy Spirit came upon or was with believers for special enablement, 1 Sam. 11:6; 16:14; Psa. 51:11, but at and shortly after Pentecost, He began permanently indwelling every believer: Eph. 1:13-14; Acts 11:17 with Acts 10:45; 1 Cor. 6:19; Rom. 8:9; Gal. 3:2-3.). 1, 2, 4

John 14:18

I will come to you (in His resurrection appearances 1, 2, 5; or, by or in the person of the Holy Spirit 3, 4, 5).

John 14:19

After a little while (a short interval of time, here meaning, about one day or so when He’d be buried). 2, 3, 5, 6

because I live (ellipsis – spiritually and eternally 3, 4, 5; or, now and through resurrection 1, 2, 6).

John 14:20

In that day (Pentecost). 1, 3, 4, 6

I am in the Father, and you in Me, and I in you (metaphor – spiritually; a spiritual unity). 4

John 14:21

will disclose Myself to him (ellipsis – spiritually 4 and experientially). 2, 5, 6

John 14:22

to us, and not to the world (Judas thought that the Messiah was to show Himself to the world). 2, 4

John 14:23

keep My word (see Jn. 8:51 note). 7

Our abode (home/dwelling place, Jn. 14:2 1, 4, 6; permanent residence 2, 3).

John 14:25

abiding (living/remaining). 4, 6

John 14:26

in My name (on behalf of Jesus 1; as Christ’s representative 5; in consistency with Christ’s character 7; with the power and authority of Christ 3).

teach you all things (ellipsis – related to the person and work of Christ 1, 2; that is necessary for the work of witnessing 4; necessary to learn or to teach others 5).

you (the 11 apostles).

John 14:27

Peace (ellipsis – with God, Rom. 5:1 1, 5; comforting assurance of salvation and God’s love 4, 5). 6

not as the world gives (ellipsis – which is only temporal and external). 5

John 14:28

I will come to you (see vs. 3 note).

the Father is greater than I [ellipsis – in office/position (the Greek word is “meizon” / “greater”) than Jesus in His humanity as a servant/man who willingly submitted Himself to the Father, Phil. 2:5-8, for a time. But the Father was not “better” (the Greek word “kreitton”) than Jesus in quality or nature/essence, as Jesus is one with God in essence/nature, Jn. 10:30]. 1, 2, 4, 6

John 14:30

the ruler of the world (Satan; see Jn. 12:31 note). 1, 2, 4, 5

is coming (ellipsis – through Judas and the Roman guard, Jn. 13:2, 27; 18:2-3). 1, 2, 4, 6

nothing in Me (no sin or guilt that could give Satan a hold, right, or power over Jesus). 1, 4, 5, 7

John 14:31

the world (metonymy – the godly in the world). 8

commandment (ellipsis – to die, Jn. 10:18).

 

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John 15:1

the true vine (metaphor – Jesus Christ 1; spiritually genuine 6, 7 and fruit-bearing 2, 5).

vinedresser (metaphor – God the Father, who cultivates and protects the vine and branches 1, 5; owner and caretaker 2).

John 15:2

branch (metaphor – one who professes to be a believer or follower of Christ). 1, 3, 5

fruit (metaphor – obedience, righteousness, justice, Isa. 5:1-7 1; love, joy, peace, patience, etc., right motives, attitudes, words, deeds – Gal. 5:22-23). 4

takes away (metaphor – see Jn. 15:6; rejects 4, 5, probably referring to Judas 1, 5, 6).

prunes (metaphor – trims, cleans of anything not spiritually productive 2, 3, 4 through the use of His word, Spirit, and/or circumstances 5).

John 15:3

clean (metaphor – spiritually; justified; forgiven of all sin, except for Judas – Jn. 13:10-11). 1, 4

the word (Jesus’ message of salvation they believed in, Jn. 6:35, 40, 47, 63, 68-69). 1, 2, 4, 5

John 15:4

Abide in Me (Be spiritually united in Me; be in intimate fellowship with Me; see Jn. 6:56 note).

John 15:5

I am … you are… (see Jn. 15:1, 2 notes).

apart from Me, you can do nothing (ellipsis – disconnected from the spiritual life empowerment in Christ, believers can do nothing good or spiritual according to God, like bearing the fruit of the Spirit in Gal. 5:22-23). 4, 5; 8, p. 619

John 15:6

thrown away (metaphor – rejected from living in/with Christ). 4, 5

cast them into the fire, and they are burned (metaphor – punished in eternal fire, Matt. 13:49-50; 25:41, 46; Rev. 20:14-15). 1, 4, 5, 6

John 15:7

abide (see Jn. 15:4 note).

My words abide in you (Jesus’ will or teachings permeate His disciples’ thinking and actions, and therefore, their requests, including that only God’s will be done – Matt. 6:10; 1 Jn. 5:14-15). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

ask whatever you wish (If His disciples are in intimate spiritual union with Christ and influenced by His words/will). 1, 6

John 15:8

fruit (see Jn. 15:2 note).

disciples (learners 6 with the intent to become like the one they’re following 2).

John 15:9

abide in My love (ellipsis – remain in My love by being obedient to My words/commands, Jn. 15:10).

John 15:11

My joy (a spiritual inner delight). 4

John 15:12

just as (sacrificially).

John 15:15

all things that I have heard (that were to be communicated 3, especially relating to man’s redemption 4, 5, and not necessarily everything completely/inclusively, Jn. 16:12; 17:8).

John 15:16

choose Me (ellipsis – as your teacher 1, 5, friend 4, and spiritual trainer).

chose you (ellipsis – to be My disciples/followers 4, 5, 6, trainees).

appointed you (put you into commission 5; ellipsis – to service 7).

fruit (metaphor – converts, Jn. 4:36 2, 4 as well as good works and character 4).

in My name (see Jn. 14:13-14 note).

John 15:18

the world (ellipsis or metonymy – of unbelievers or wicked people, which includes unbelieving religious leaders 4; the system of organized, unredeemed society hostile to God and under Satan’s power, Jn. 14:30 1, 2).

John 15:20

greater than his master (litotes – better, superior, or more important than, so as to be exempt from what his master does or immune to how he is treated). 4

kept My word, they will keep yours also (accept it by faith; obey or follow it 1, 6). 4

John 15:21

for My name’s sake (because of your identification with Me, who I am and what I represent). 1, 4, 7

know (personally, experientially; see Jn. 8:55 note).

John 15:22

they would not have sin (ellipsis – regarding rejection of or unbelief in Me, Jesus, Jn. 16:9). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

John 15:23

He who hates Me hates My Father (ellipsis – because We are one in essence, Jn. 10:30 4; and the Father had sent Me, Jn. 5:36, and what I speak are His words, Jn. 8:28 1, and what I do are His works, Jn. 5:17-22, 36; 8:30, 36-37; 10:25, 38; 14:10).

John 15:24

the works which no one else did (the many miracles 1, like the blind seeing, the deaf hearing, the lame walking, etc., Mk. 1:27; 2:12). 5

would not have sin (see Jn. 15:22 note).

seen … My Father (ellipsis – in and by means of these miracles/works). 4

John 15:27

from the beginning (ellipsis – of My ministry, Lk. 1:2). 2, 4, 6

 

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John 16:1

These things (the warnings 1, 4 and encouragements in Jn. 15:18-26). 2, 3

stumbling (deviating from the path of God’s will 1, 5; being disappointed greatly 4, 5).

John 16:2

They (Jewish leaders). 4

John 16:3

not known (see Jn. 8:19, 55).

John 16:4

their hour (the time appointed for these things 6, persecutions, Jn. 15:20).

at the beginning (see Jn. 15:27 note).

John 16:5

Him who sent Me (God the Father in heaven, Jn. 16:28).

John 16:6

heart (see Jn. 14:1).

John 16:7

the Helper (see Jn. 14:26).

John 16:8

when He comes (at Pentecost and indwells believers from that point on, and they preach the gospel). 4

convict (expose facts to convince of the truth 1, 2, 5; expose the guilt of and call to repentance 4).

the world (the unsaved). 1

sin (ellipsis – of their rejection of or unbelief in Christ, Jn. 16:9). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

righteousness (ellipsis – the righteousness of Christ because God accepted Him and His atoning sacrifice since God accepted Him back into heaven, Jn. 16:10). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

judgment (ellipsis – or the condemnation of Satan, the ruler of this world, because of Jesus’ death and resurrection, which defeated and judicially overthrew Satan, Jn. 16:11, who held the power of death, Heb. 2:14, and sin, 1 Jn. 3:8, over people, Jn. 12:31). 1, 2, 3

John 16:12

you cannot bear them now (ellipsis – bear to hear or understand them because of your self-focused sorrow 1, 4, 5, lack of the Holy Spirit’s residence and illumination in you 4, 5, and experiential immaturity 2, 6).

John 16:13

Spirit of truth (see Jn. 14:17 note).

guide you into all truth (ellipsis – not every realm of knowledge 2, 7, but about Jesus and His work 1, 7; regarding spiritual things, e.g., 1 Cor. 2:9-10 2; the whole body of redemptive revelation 4, 6; whatever truths the apostles were to teach others).

will not speak on His own initiative (ellipsis – regarding separate interests or intentions of His own). 5

whatever He hears (what is given Him to communicate 3, e.g. the Epistles 4).

you (ellipsis – the 11 apostles).

what is to come (future things, e.g., 1 Cor. 15; 2 Thes. 2; Revelation). 4

John 16:14

take of Mine, and shall disclose it to you (things pertaining to the person and work of Christ 1 and make it clear 2, 3, 4, 6 to the apostles; Christ’s virtues and teachings regarding redemption, salvation, etc. and enlarge on it 4; see Jn. 16:13 note on “all truth”).

John 16:15

All things (all the truths/teachings regarding: salvation 4, the death and resurrection of Christ 6, the person and work of Christ 1, and including those truths concerning the Father and His counsels 2; what God wanted us to know 5; all things of the kingdom of Grace 3).

you (ellipsis – the 11 apostles).

John 16:16

A little while (see Jn. 14:19 note; a short interval of time, here, meaning, about one day or so when He’d be buried 2, 3, 5, 6).

again a little while … see Me (here meaning, about three days, when He’d be resurrected and appear to them, Jn. 20:19). 2, 3, 5, 6

John 16:20

lament (ellipsis – when I’m dead 1, 4).

the world (see Jn. 15:18 note).

will rejoice (ellipsis – because of getting rid of Jesus through crucifying Him). 1, 2, 4, 5

your sorrow will be turned to joy (ellipsis – because of His resurrection appearances, Jn. 20:20 6, and their soon to follow understanding of the purpose of His death, Lk. 24:41, 45-52). 1, 2, 4, 5

John 16:21

(a parable). 5

John 16:22

see you again (ellipsis – after His resurrection 1; at His ascension, Lk. 24:51-52 2).

John 16:23

in that day (from Jesus’ ascension to heaven and on 1, 2; from Pentecost and on 3, 4, 5).

ask … for anything (ellipsis – that you have a question about). 2, 3

in My name (see Jn. 14:13 note). 4

He will give it to you (ellipsis – through the Holy Spirit teaching you, Jn. 14:26; 16:13 3; a promise to the eleven apostles).

John 16:24

Until now … in My name (up to this point, the disciples hadn’t prayed in the name of Jesus, but now that He was going to die and ascend to heaven, they had a basis/reason to do so 1, that basis is the very merits of Christ and what is in harmony with His redemptive revelation 4).

John 16:25

These things (about His death, resurrection, ascension, His Father, the Holy Spirit’s coming, and their relationship to His disciples).

figurative language (Jesus Himself confirms that the basis for correct interpretation is in understanding that He’s been using figures of speech).

an hour is coming (starting at Pentecost, Acts 2, and continuing on through their lifetime).

when I … will tell you plainly (ellipsis – through the Holy Spirit). 2, 3, 4, 5

John 16:26

in that day (after His ascension).

in My name (see Jn. 14:13 note).

I do not say … on your behalf (I no longer need to pray on your behalf as if the Father won’t hear you; you can ask for yourselves 1, 3, 4. This is not to say that Jesus doesn’t intercede for them regarding the forgiveness of their sins, Heb. 7:25).

John 16:30

You know all things (You are omniscient). 1, 4

have no need for anyone to question You (ellipsis – because you know what’s on the person’s mind before he even asks the question). 4

John 16:32

for you to be scattered (at Jesus’ arrest, Matt. 26:56).

John 16:33

These things (chapters 14-16). 1

peace (see Jn. 14:27 note).

tribulation (hostile pressure and opposition 1 and persecution). 4, 5

overcome the world (spiritually won victory over the evil world system 1, 6, through His perfect life, training of apostles, and coming: death, resurrection, ascension, and defeat of Satan).

 

Chapter:   1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21

John 17:1

the hour has come (ellipsis – to accomplish the divine plan of redemption in My crucifixion 1, 3, 5, resurrection, ascension, and ruling 4).

glorify Your Son (ellipsis – honor Me by carrying Me through the coming suffering, crucifixion, resurrection 3, 5, and ascension 2, 4, 6, and defeat of Satan 5).

glorify You (ellipsis – honor You by revealing Your attributes/virtues 4, and establishing Your kingdom 5).

John 17:2

You gave Him authority over all mankind/flesh (God the Father has ordained the rule of the Son over the earth, Psalm 2 1 with all authority in heaven and on earth, Matt. 28:18 2, 4, 6).

to all whom You have given Him (see Jn. 6:37, 39). 4

John 17:3

eternal life … know You … and Jesus (Here, eternal life is described as having an endless intimate personal relationship with God the Father and the Son 1, 4; experiential knowledge of the Father and Son through communion with Them 5.).

John 17:4

accomplished the work (expressed in the past tense because of its certainty. The redemption, through His death 1, 4, 5, of those God gave Him, Jn. 10:29; Lk. 19:10, as well as revealing the Father, 1:18, and training the apostles, Mk. 1:17; 3:14; Jn. 4:34-38; 17:18). 2, 3

John 17:5

with the glory which I had (ellipsis – in My pre-incarnate splendor and honor, Jn. 1:1-2)

John 17:6

I manifested Your name (I made known/revealed/showed who You really were, Jn. 14:7-9 2, 5; Your whole character 3; I displayed Your attributes 4).

to the men (the disciples/apostles 1, 2, 3, 6; all the elect, but particularly here, His disciples 4, 5).

gave Me (ellipsis – for salvation as spiritual sheep, Jn. 6:37, 39).

kept Your word (believed the gospel that Jesus is the Messiah sent from God, Jn. 16:27; see Jn. 8:51). 1, 2, 4, 5, 7

John 17:7

everything (My words and works). 4

John 17:8

the words (the teachings, especially those relating to the gospel). 7

received them (accepted/believed/obeyed them). 4

sent (commissioned). 4

John 17:9

their (the eleven disciples/apostles 1, 2, 5; the elect 4).

the world (see Jn. 15:18 note).

they are Yours (owned by God in being chosen/elected/predestined 1, Rom. 8:29-30; Eph. 1:4, 11; 2 Thes. 2:13; 2 Tim. 1:9). 4

John 17:10

all things (everything in the universe, including these disciples, vs. 9 4; the elect/chosen ones, Jn. 6:37, 39 3).

glorified in them (honored in His disciples 1, 6 through/by their salvation 2, 4 and ministry). 5

John 17:11

no more/longer in the world (ellipsis – as I’m certain of leaving it after My death and ascension). 1, 4

Holy Father, keep them in Your name (as Holy God, keep them in holiness, Lk. 1:49; protect them from sin and the world’s evil influence, Prov. 18:10 1, 2, 3, 4, 5).

name (metonymy – holiness, in separation from the world’s evil influence).

the name which You have given Me (i.e., the Holy One of God, Lk. 1:35; Jn. 6:69; Acts 3:14).

one (ellipsis – in holiness; or, spiritually; in Spirit 3, 6).

John 17:12

in Your name (in holiness; in separation from the world’s evil influence).

guarded (metaphor – spiritually, protecting them from apostasy). 4

perished (metaphor – was lost/ruined spiritually, totally and finally). 5

the son of (metaphor – the destiny that corresponds with the character). 9

the son of perdition (metaphor – the one destined/doomed to destruction 1, 3; the one spiritually lost from the beginning 2; the one designated unto utter lostness 4, 6).

Scripture might be fulfilled (see Psa. 41:9).

John 17:13

these things (Jn. 17:1-12). 4

in the world (while still on earth). 4, 5

John 17:14

Your word (see Jn. 17:6 note). 4, 5

the world (see Jn. 15:18 note).

John 17:15

keep (preserve 1; protect 4).

the evil one (Satan). 1, 4

John 17:17

Sanctify (set apart: for special use 1, for God 6, 7, and holy purposes 2).

in the truth; Your word is truth (in preaching the truth, God’s word, the gospel, Eph. 1:13; Col. 1:5).

John 17:18

As … I also have sent them (ellipsis – to seek and save the lost through preaching the gospel 1, 2, 4 and training others to do likewise 5 – Lk. 19:10; 9:2; 10:1-3; Mk. 1:14-20, 38; 3:14; Jn. 4:38; Matt. 10:5-7, 16).

John 17:19

for their sakes (ellipsis – their spiritual, eternal sakes and as an example). 2

I sanctify Myself (ellipsis – to preaching the word of the gospel, the truth). 2, 6

sanctified in truth (set apart for preaching the gospel, the truth, Jn. 17:18; 20:21; Col. 1:5 2, 4).

John 17:20

these (eleven disciples/apostles). 1, 4, 5

but for those who believe in Me… (ellipsis – that they too set themselves apart to preach the gospel).

their word (the message of salvation they preach). 4

John 17:21

one (ellipsis – in the mission or purpose of evangelizing the spiritually lost – Jn. 17:17-20; Phil. 2:2 with Phil. 1:27; in being set apart in/for truth, the gospel, Eph. 1:13; Col. 1:5).

that the world may believe (ellipsis – through their unity of mission in preaching the gospel; metonymy – many in the world 8).

John 17:22

glory which You have given Me (the honor, privilege of serving and suffering for God 2, in seeking and saving the lost that God commissioned Jesus to).

I have given to them (Jn. 17:18; 15:27; 4:38).

one (see Jn. 17:21 note).

John 17:24

where I am (ellipsis – to be shortly, in heaven, Jn. 14:2-3). 5, 6

glory (the radiance of His divine attributes, Jn. 17:5; 1:14). 4

John 17:25

world (see Jn. 15:18 note).

has not known You (see Jn. 8:55 note).

these (apostles). 4

John 17:26

Your name (You, who You are, a righteous, holy, loving, forgiving, redeeming, etc. God). 1, 2, 4

them (the apostles). 4

 

Chapter:   1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 1719 | 20 | 21

John 18:4

knowing (in His omniscience as God, see Jn. 2:24; 6:64 1).

all the things that were coming upon Him (the events of His arrest, trial, crucifixion, etc. , Jn. 17:11). 5, 6

John 18:6

they drew back and fell to the ground (possibly because Jesus said “I am”, referring to deity/God, Ex. 3:14; Jn. 8:58). 1, 2

John 18:11

the cup (symbolism – the suffering and crucifixion He was to undergo). 1, 4, 5, 6

drink (metaphor – experience/take/embrace). 1

it (metaphor – the cup’s contents). 4

John 18:15

another disciple (probably John, Jn. 20:2; 21:20, 24). 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7

John 18:20

world (hyperbole – general public). 1, 2, 4, 5

always (hyperbole – often, but at times He taught elsewhere, as in Jn. 3:3-15; 4:7-26, 34-38; 9:1-5, 35-41; 10:1-18; 11:20-26; 13:2 – 16:33; Matt. 5:1 – 8:1; 13:1-3). 5, 6

nothing in secret (ellipsis – contrary to what I spoke in public 5; or seditious 8, p. 619).

John 18:28

Praetorium (hall of judgment, the headquarters of the governor). 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

defiled (ellipsis – made unclean ceremonially/ritualistically by entering a Gentile/pagan/Roman house or palace). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Passover (brachylogy – Passover meal/lamb, Mk. 14:12; Lk. 22:7-8 3, 4, or other Passover festival meals 5, 6).

John 18:31

We are not permitted to put anyone to death (the Jews had lost the official/legal right to execute under Roman law). 1, 4

John 18:32

the word of Jesus might be fulfilled (being lifted up; crucified – Jn. 3:14; 8:28; 12:32). 1, 2, 3, 4

what kind of death (Roman crucifixion, not Jewish stoning). 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7

John 18:36

not of this world (litotes – It’s from heaven, not from an earthly power/origin and nature/character 1, 5; it’s spiritual, in the hearts and lives of those who obey/follow Him 4).

John 18:37

You say correctly (idiom – You are right, yes I am.). 1, 4, 5, 6

the truth (see Jn. 17:17 note).

of the truth (metonymy – of the gospel of Jesus Christ; a chosen/sheep/predestined-to-salvation one).

hears (see Jn. 10:8 note).

My voice (My message, that I’m the Savior/Messiah, see Jn. 10:16 note).

 

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John 19:3

give Him blows (keep on slapping Him). 4, 6, 7

John 19:5

the Man (irony – miserable creature 2; pathetic figure 1, 6; Has He not suffered enough? Does He look like a dangerous rebel? Pilate’s statement was probably intended to excite pity in the Jews for Jesus 4).

John 19:7

the Son of God (see Jn. 10:36 note).

John 19:9

Praetorium (see Jn. 18:28 note).

John 19:11

from above (metonymy – from God). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

he who delivered Me up (Caiaphas, the high priest, Jn. 11:49-50; 18:13-14). 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7

greater (because the more one knows God’s will/word, the more he’s expected to abide by or do it rather than violate it, Lk. 12:47-48).

greater sin (ellipsis – because it was his duty to know and teach as well as do the will of God 2; having better opportunities and more knowledge of such matters, Jn. 9:41 3, 4).

John 19:14

the day of preparation for the Passover (Friday, the day Christ died, the Passover proper day, and the day to prepare for the seven day Feast of Unleavened Bread, sometimes called the Passover Week, which immediately followed the Day of Passover, Friday). 1, 4, 6

sixth hour (6 am Roman time 1, 4, 5, 6, not Jewish time, as Jesus was crucified at 9 am, the third hour, Jewish time, Mk. 15:25).

John 19:24

cast lots (throw from a receptacle small tablets/bits of wood or stone, sometimes inscribed with the names of people on them). 9

John 19:24-25

They said therefore … Therefore the soldiers did these things (ellipsis – because it was predicted in the Old Testament Scripture, Psa. 22:18. They, like other people, were predestined to do certain things to fulfill prophecy, as in Acts 4:27-28).

John 19:26

the disciple whom He loved (John; see Jn. 13:23 note).

Woman (see Jn. 2:4 note).

son (metaphor – he, John, was to be like her son; she like a mother to him). 4, 5, 6

John 19:27

mother (metaphor – she, Mary, was to be like his mother; he taking care of her). 4, 5

John 19:28

all things (ellipsis – that were supposed to take place up to this point that He was to fulfill according to Scripture). 3, 5

John 19:30

It is finished (is translated from the Greek word “tetelestai”, meaning “paid in full”, which meant that Jesus’ shed blood in death completed redemption from sin for all who believe in Jesus as Savior). 1, 2, 3, 4, 6

gave up His spirit (euphemism – died voluntarily; gave up voluntarily His human life spirit). 4, 5

John 19:31

because … day of preparation … bodies should not remain on … Sabbath (6 pm started the next Jewish day, the Sabbath, and Jews couldn’t work on the Sabbath, and bodies couldn’t remain on a tree overnight according to Deut. 21:22-23, therefore, the Jews wanted to take down the body right away). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

high day (or great day, as it was both a Sabbath day as well as the first day of Unleavened Bread; a holiday). 3, 4, 5, 6

legs might be broken (ellipsis – to hasten death 2, 3, 6, 7 through shock 4, loss of blood, and inability to breathe, as the chest cavity would then bear the pressure of the body’s weight 1, and a person would suffocate because he couldn’t lift himself up with his legs).

John 19:34

blood and water (an occurrence in the period immediately following death 2; the effect of long continued and intense agony frequently produces a secretion of a colorless lymph in the pericardium). 3, 4

John 19:35

he who has seen (referring to the apostle John). 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

John 19:38

the Jews (see Jn. 9:18 note). 4

John 19:42

on account of the Jewish day of preparation (see Jn. 19:31 note).

 

Chapter:   1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 1921

John 20:8

saw (ellipsis – perceived the evidence of neatly lying, empty grave clothes, and folded face linen, and empty tomb). 1, 5

believed (ellipsis – that Jesus was resurrected). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

John 20:9

as yet (up to this point, but later they would, Lk. 24:44-45). 2, 5, 6

did not understand the Scripture (such as Psa. 16:10-11; 110:1, 4; Isa. 53:11-12 1, 4, 6; nor did they understand Jesus’ oral prediction of it, Mk. 9:9-10). 2, 6

John 20:13, 15

Woman (see Jn. 2:4 note).

John 20:17

Stop clinging to Me (ellipsis – as if by this you think you can keep Me always here with you). 1, 2, 4, 7

not yet ascended to the Father (ellipsis – so that in My Spirit, you can have continual fellowship with Me instead). 1, 2, 4, 6, 7

My brethren (metaphor – spiritual brothers). 1, 4

My Father and your Father (see Jn. 5:18; Jesus has a unique relationship to His Father, God, as being Son by nature, meaning, He’s equally God too. This is in contrast to believers, who are sons/daughters or children by adoption, Eph. 1:5). 2, 3, 4, 5

My God (Jehovah was the God of the man Jesus in His humanity). 2, 3

John 20:19

the Jews (see Jn. 9:18 note).

John 20:20

showed them both (ellipsis – the nail and spear prints in).

John 20:21

as the Father has sent Me (simile – with His authority as His representative into the world, Jn. 17:18, to teach, preach, evangelize, etc.). 1, 4, 5

I also send you (ellipsis – to do likewise; see Jn. 17:18 note).

John 20:22

He breathed on them (symbolism 6, 7 – for the conveyance of new life in the Holy Spirit). 1, 2, 3, 5

Receive the Holy Spirit (in token form for limited empowerment until Pentecost, when it will be greatly expanded with the permanent residency of the Spirit). 1, 3, 5, 6, 7

John 20:23

If you forgive… (ellipsis – based on whether a person has faith in Jesus as Savior. These apostles could then tell that person that his/her sins are forgiven because they’re only saying what they know is already true from what God taught, Lk. 5:20; 7:48, 50). 1, 2, 3, 5, 6

if you retain… (ellipsis – based on the fact that that person has rejected Jesus as Savior. These apostles could then tell that person that his/her sins are not forgiven because that’s true of everyone who rejects Jesus as Savior, Jn. 8:24.). 1, 2, 3, 5, 6

John 20:29

Blessed (i.e., Fortunate – Dr. L. Richards’ Expository Dictionary of Bible Words).

not see (ellipsis – Me resurrected). 3, 5

John 20:30     signs (miracles).

John 20:31

life (brachylogy – eternal, spiritual life). 3, 5, 6

in His name (in and because of Him/Jesus Christ; see Jn. 1:12 note).

 

Chapter:   1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20

John 21:1

manifested (showed/appeared/displayed visibly or physically). 2, 3, 4, 5

John 21:5

Children (see Jn. 13:33 note).

John 21:7

was stripped (only had his undergarment on or loin-cloth 4, 5, 6, 7).

into the sea (ellipsis – to swim and walk to shore).

John 21:14

manifested (see Jn. 21:1 note).

John 21:15

love (Gk. “agapao”, see Jn. 11:5 note; high and devoted love 6; wholehearted devotion 4).

more than these (ellipsis – other disciples love Me, because of what Peter said in Mk. 14:29; Matt. 26:33). 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7

I love You (Gk. “phileo”, meaning “affection for” 4, 7; friendship love 6).

Tend (metaphor – feed 1; nourish/strengthen through feeding/giving them the word of God 4, 5, 6).

lambs (metaphor – young or new believers, 1 Jn. 2:12-13). 3, 5

John 21:16

Shepherd (metaphor – take care of, in general). 1, 3, 5

sheep (metaphor – the more mature believers). 3, 5

John 21:17

love (Gk. “phileo” meaning “have an affection for” is used all three times here. 3 Jesus realizes that Peter doesn’t “agapao”, sacrificially seek His best, but only has a “phileo” / fond affection for Jesus). 2

John 21:18

gird (dress/clothed). 4, 7

stretch out your hands (ellipsis – to be bound for execution 3; crucified 1, 2, 3, 4, 5).

someone else will … bring you… (to arrest and to the place of execution). 4, 5

John 21:19

what kind of death (martyrdom 5, 6, probably by crucifixion). 2, 4

glorify (honor).

John 21:20

the disciple whom Jesus loved (see Jn. 13:23 note).

John 21:21

what about this man? (ellipsis – What will happen to him?). 1, 2, 4

John 21:22

what is that to you? (Jesus rebukes Peter for his distracting curiosity about John’s future instead of obeying His command to follow Him). 2, 4, 5, 6

John 21:24

This is the disciple who… (refers to the disciple whom Jesus loved, Jn. 21:20, who was one of the seven disciples mentioned in Jn. 21:2 as seen from Jn. 21:7, who was seated next to Jesus at the Last Supper and to whom Peter motioned in Jn. 13:23-24, who was one of the 12 disciples since only they were with the Lord at that Supper, Mk. 14:17, who was closely related to Peter and thus one of the inner three, Jn. 20:2-10; Mk. 5:37-38; 9:2-3; 14:33, and since John’s brother, James, died in AD. 44, Acts 12:2, before this Gospel was written; therefore, it can only be John). 2, 4, 7

these things (probably the entire Gospel). 1, 4

John 21:25

the world itself… (hyperbole – meaning that Jesus did a lot of other things not recorded in John). 4, 5, 6

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. The Bible Knowledge Commentary, New Testament, by Drs. J. Walvoord and R. Zuck.
  2. The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, by Drs. C. Pheiffer and Harrison.
  3. Commentary on the Whole Bible, by Drs. R. Jamieson, A. Fausset, and D. Brown.
  4. New Testament Commentary – The Gospel of John by Dr. William Hendriksen.
  5. Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible, vol. 3, by Matthew Henry.
  6. Word Pictures in the New Testament, vol. 1, by Dr. A. T. Robertson.
  7. Word Studies in the New Testament, by Dr. M. R. Vincent.
  8. Figures of Speech Used in the Bible by Dr. E. Bullinger.
  9. An Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words by Drs. Vine, Unger, and White.

 

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