What are the different judgments and resurrections mentioned in the Bible? Who will be participating in which judgment or resurrection?
1. The Judgment Seat of Christ.
The purpose for this judgment is not to determine whether the person is a believer or not or whether he goes to heaven or hell, since those issues have already been settled for the Christian (Jn. 3:18; 5:24; Rom. 8:1). Rather, the purpose for this judgment is to make a public revelation of the essential character and motivation of the Christian to determine what service done in Christianity is acceptable and therefore rewarded or is worthless and therefore is not rewarded (2 Cor. 5:10; Rom. 14:10; 1 Cor. 3:9-15). The result will either be a reward received or a reward lost. In the New Testament there are five areas specifically mentioned as being rewarded: self-control/discipline/mastery in all things, especially over our sin nature and bodily desires (1 Cor. 9:25-27); evangelism/soul-winning/witnessing (1 Thes. 2:19); faithfulness/persevering/enduring under trials or testingly hard circumstances (James 1:12; Rev. 2:10); loving Christ’s appearing (2 Tim. 4:8); spiritually feeding/discipling Christians (1 Pet. 5:2-4).
The judgment seat of Christ is only for Christians/believers in the Church age. It takes place immediately following the rapture of the church from the earth into heaven. According to Lk. 14:14 reward is associated with the resurrection. And according to 1 Thes. 4:13-17, the resurrection is an integral part of the rapture, so reward must be a part of that program. Also, when the Lord returns to the earth with His bride (the Church/Christians) to rule, the bride/Church is seen to be already rewarded. This is seen in Rev. 19:7-8 where the “righteous acts of the saints” have survived examination and have become the basis of reward. Then, in 1 Cor. 4:5; 2 Tim. 4:8; and Rev. 22:12 the reward is associated with “that day” or “the time”, which is the day in which Christ comes for His own at the rapture. This judgment takes place in the sphere of the heavenlies (1 Thes. 4:17; 2 Cor. 5:1-10).
J. D. Pentecost’s Things to Come, pp. 220-223.
2. The Judgment on the Nation Israel.
The purpose of this judgment will be to determine which Israelites will enter into Christ’s millennial kingdom and which Israelites will be eternally punished (Ezek. 20:34-38; Mal. 3:2-5; Zech. 13:8-9; Matt. 25:30).This judgment (Matt. 25:1-30) will take place after the seven year tribulation period (Matt. 24:4-26) at the second coming of Christ to earth (Matt. 24:27-30), when Israel is regathered (Matt. 24:31). The living unsaved Jews will be cut off and eternally punished, while the living saved Jews will be taken into the millennium to fulfill their covenants (Rom. 11:26-27; 9:6). This judgment apparently takes place on earth at the borders of Israel (Zech. 14:4; Ezek. 20:34-38) and will be upon all the living Israelites (Matt. 24:31).
Things to Come, pp. 413-415.
3. The Judgment on the Gentiles.
This judgment on the Gentile nations (Joel 3:1-2) takes place following the judgment upon Israel (Matt. 24:31; 25:1-30) at Christ’s second coming (Matt. 24:27-30), when the Lord restores the nation Israel to its land, and it precedes the institution of the millennial kingdom (Matt. 25:34). The term “nations” is used in relation to individuals in Matt. 6:31-32, 12:21; 20:19; 28:19; Acts 11:18; 15:3; 26:20. This judgment takes place on earth in the valley of Jehoshaphat (Joel 3:2), which may be the future valley by the Mount of Olives (Zech. 14:4). Those being judged are those Gentiles living at the time of Christ’s 2nd coming (Matt. 25:31-32). These Gentiles are judged on the basis of how they treated Christ via His “brothers” (Matt. 25:40, 45), who were the “sealed” 144,000 Israelite evangelists during the tribulation period (Rev. 7:3-15; Isa. 66:19-20) who preached “this gospel of the kingdom in the whole world” (Matt. 24:14). To kindly treat the Israelite evangelists was evidence that these Gentiles had accepted Christ and their gospel. Accepting the gospel of Jesus Christ is what saved these believing Gentiles, but their kind treatment of the believing Israelite evangelists, “Christ’s brothers”, was evidence of that fact (James 2:14-17).
Those on Christ’s right (Matt. 25:33-40) are His sheep (Jn. 10:4-11) – believers who showed their salvation or right relation to Christ by how they favorably treated Christ’s servant-evangelists (Matt. 24:14; Rev. 7:3). These sheep on Christ’s right side will inherit the kingdom with Christ, while those on Christ’s left, the goats (Matt. 25:33) – unbelievers who showed their lack of salvation by their ill or lack of favorable treatment to Christ’s servant-evangelists (Matt. 25:42-45) – will go to hell/eternal punishment (Matt. 25:41, 46).
Things to Come, pp. 415-422.
4. The Great White Throne Judgment.
This judgment is the final judgment and takes place at the end of Christ’s millennial rule (Rev. 20:5, 12-13). It’s apparently located somewhere in space rather than on earth or in heaven (Rev. 20:11). Those being judged are the unbelieving dead of all ages. And they are being judged for their evil deeds and for their names failing to appear in the book of life (Rev. 20:12, 15). Different degrees of punishment in hell will be given based on their knowledge of God’s will and amount and type of evil committed (Lk. 12:47-48; 10:12-15).
5. The Judgment on Fallen Angels.
This is to take place on “the great day” (Jude 1:6), which is probably associated with Satan’s judgment shortly after the millennium and right before the great white throne judgment (Rev. 20:7-10). Their sin being judged is probably that of following Satan in his rebellion against God (Isa. 14:12-17; Ezek. 28:12-19; 2 Pet. 2:4). They will be consigned to the lake of fire/hell forever (Rev. 20:10; 2 Pet. 2:4).
There are two kinds of resurrection taught in the Bible.
The first kind is the resurrection to life (Lk.14:13-14; Phil. 3:10-14; Heb. 11:35; Jn. 5:28-29; Rev. 20:6). Sometimes it’s called “the resurrection of the righteous”, the “out-resurrection from the dead”, a “better resurrection”, “a resurrection of life”, “the first resurrection”. This resurrection is that part of the resurrection program in which individuals are raised to eternal life. The destiny, not the time, determines to which part of the resurrection program any event is to be assigned. This “first” resurrection (Rev. 20:5-6) means “before” the “last” resurrection (Rev. 20:12-13) and is in stages and is for all the righteous.
The second kind of resurrection is to damnation. This part of the resurrection program deals with the unsaved. It is “a resurrection of judgment” (Jn. 5:29), and is of “the rest of the dead” (Rev. 20:5).
It is made very clear in Rev. 20:5 that the two parts of the resurrection program are separated by an interval of 1,000 years. One thousand years will intervene between the resurrection unto life and the resurrection of the rest of the dead, which according to Rev. 20:11-13 is the resurrection unto damnation.
The order of events then in the resurrection program is:
1. the resurrection of Jesus Christ as the beginning of the resurrection program (1 Cor. 15:23);
2. the resurrection of the church age saints/Christians at the rapture (1 Thes. 4:16);
3. the resurrection of the tribulation period saints/believers (Rev. 20:3-5) together with the …
4. resurrection of Old Testament saints/believers (Dan. 12:1-3; Ezek. 37:12-14; Isa. 26:19-21) at the second coming of Christ to the earth; and finally …
5. the final resurrection of the unsaved dead (Rev. 20:5, 11-14) at the end of the millennium.
Things to Come, pp. 395-398.