The Gospel of Matthew

Introduction

It is fitting that the New Testament begins with four accounts of the life of Jesus Christ. These accounts present the “good news” concerning the Son of God, telling of His life on earth and His death on the cross for the sin of mankind. The first three Gospels take a similar view of the facts surrounding this Person, while the Fourth Gospel is unique in its presentation. Because of this common view of Jesus Christ the first three New Testament books are called the Synoptic Gospels.

The Authorship of the First Gospel

When one deals with the question of who wrote a particular Bible book, the evidence is normally twofold: evidence outside the book (“external evidence”) and evidence within the book itself (“internal evidence”). External evidence strongly supports the view that the Apostle Matthew wrote the Gospel that bears his name. Many early church fathers cited Matthew as its author, including Pseudo Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Polycarp, Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and Origen. (For further attestation see Norman L. Geisler and William E. Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible, Chicago: Moody Press, 1968, p. 193.) Matthew was certainly not one of the more prominent apostles. One might think the First Gospel would have been written by Peter, James, or John. But the extensive tradition that Matthew wrote it strongly commends him as its author.

Internal evidence also supports the fact that Matthew was the author of the First Gospel. This book has more references to coins than any of the other three Gospels. In fact this Gospel includes three terms for coins that are found nowhere else in the New Testament: “The two-drachma tax” (Matt. 17:24); “a four-drachma coin” (Matt. 17:27), and “talents” (Matt. 18:24). Since Matthew’s occupation was tax collecting, he had an interest in coins and noted the cost of certain items. The profession of tax collector would necessitate an ability to write and keep records. Matthew obviously had the ability, humanly speaking, to write a book such as the First Gospel.

His Christian humility comes through as well, for Matthew alone continually refers to himself throughout his Gospel as “Matthew the tax collector.” But Mark and Luke do not continually use that term of contempt when speaking of Matthew. Also, when Matthew began to follow Jesus, he invited his friends to a “dinner” (Matt. 9:9-10). Luke, however, called the dinner “a great banquet” (Lk. 5:29). The omissions from the First Gospel are significant too, for Matthew omitted the Parable of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector (Lk. 18:9-14) and the story of Zacchaeus, a tax collector who restored fourfold what he had stolen (Lk. 19:1-10). The internal evidence concerning the authorship of the First Gospel points to Matthew as its most likely author.

The Original Language of the First Gospel

While all the extant manuscripts of the First Gospel are in Greek, some suggest that Matthew wrote his Gospel in Aramaic, similar to Hebrew. Five individuals stated, in effect, that Matthew wrote in Aramaic and that translations followed in Greek: Papias (a.d. 80-155), Irenaeus (A.D. 130-202), Origen (A.D. 185-254), Eusebius (fourth century A.D.), and Jerome (sixth century A.D.). However, they may have been referring to a writing by Matthew other than his Gospel account. Papias, for example, said Matthew compiled the sayings (logia) of Jesus. Those “sayings” might have been a second, shorter account of the Lord’s words, written in Aramaic and sent to a group of Jews for whom it would have been most meaningful. That writing was later lost, for no such version exists today. The First Gospel, however, was probably penned by Matthew in Greek and has survived until today. Matthew’s logia did not survive, but his Gospel did. This was because the latter, part of the biblical canon and thus God’s Word, was inspired and preserved by the Spirit of God.

The Date of the First Gospel

Pinpointing the writing of the First Gospel to a specific year is impossible. Various dates for the book have been suggested by conservative scholars. C.I. Scofield in the original Scofield Reference Bible gave a.d. 37 as a possible date. Few scholars give a date after a.d. 70, since Matthew made no reference to the destruction of Jerusalem. Furthermore, Matthew’s references to Jerusalem as the “Holy City” (Matt. 4:5; Matt. 27:53) imply that it was still in existence.

But some time seems to have elapsed after the events of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection. Matt. 27:7-8 refers to a certain custom continuing “to this day,” and Matt. 28:15 refers to a story being circulated “to this very day.” These phrases imply the passing of time, and yet not so much time that the Jewish customs had ceased. Since church tradition has strongly advocated that the Gospel of Matthew was the first Gospel account written, perhaps a date somewhere around a.d. 50 would satisfy all the demands mentioned. It would also be early enough to permit Matthew to be the first Gospel account.

The Occasion for Writing the First Gospel

Though the precise occasion for the writing of this account is not known, it appears Matthew had at least two reasons for writing. First, he wanted to show unbelieving Jews that Jesus is the Messiah. Matthew had found the Messiah, and he wanted others to come into that same relationship. Second, Matthew wrote to encourage Jewish believers. If indeed Jesus is the Messiah, a horrible thing had occurred. The Jews had crucified their Messiah and King. What would now become of them? Was God through with them? At this point Matthew had a word of encouragement, for though their act of disobedience would bring judgment on that generation of Israelites, God was not through with His people. His promised kingdom would yet be instituted with His people at a future time. In the meantime, however, believers are responsible to communicate a different message of faith in this Messiah as they go into all the world to make disciples among all nations.

Some Outstanding Characteristics of the First Gospel

  1. The Book of Matthew places great emphasis on the teaching ministry of Jesus Christ. Of the Gospel accounts Matthew has the largest blocks of discourse material. No other Gospel contains so much of Jesus’ teachings. Matthew 5-7 is commonly referred to as the Sermon on the Mount; Matt. 10:1-42 includes Jesus’ instructions to His disciples as they were sent out to minister; Matt. 13:1-58 presents the parables of the kingdom; in Matt. 23:1-39 is Jesus’ “hot” denunciation of the religious leaders of Israel; and chapters 24-25 are the Olivet Discourse, a detailed explanation of future events relating to Jerusalem and the nation.
  2. Some of the material in Matthew is arranged logically rather than chronologically. As examples, the genealogical tables are broken into three equal groups, a large number of miracles are given together, and the opposition to Jesus is given in one section. Matthew’s purpose is obviously more thematic than chronological.
  3. The First Gospel is filled with Old Testament quotations. Matthew includes approximately 50 direct citations from the Old Testament. In addition about 75 allusions are made to Old Testament events. This is undoubtedly because of the audience for whom the book was intended. Matthew primarily had Jews in mind as he wrote, and they would have been impressed by the many references to Old Testament facts and events. In addition, if this Gospel was written around a.d. 50, not many New Testament books were available for Matthew to have cited. Those books may not have been known to his readers or even to Matthew himself.
  4. The First Gospel shows that Jesus Christ is the Messiah of Israel and explains God’s kingdom program (Stanley D. Toussaint, Behold the King: A Study of Matthew, pp. 18-20). “If indeed Jesus is Messiah,” a Jew would ask, “what has happened to the promised kingdom?” The Old Testament clearly taught that the Messiah would bring in a glorious utopian reign on the earth in which the nation Israel would have a prominent position. Since the nation rejected its true King, what happened to the kingdom? The Book of Matthew includes some “mysteries” about the kingdom, which had not been revealed in the Old Testament. These “mysteries” show that the kingdom has taken a different form in the present Age, but that the promised Davidic kingdom will be instituted at a future time when Jesus Christ returns to earth to establish His rule.
  5. The First Gospel has a summary statement in its first verse: “A record of the genealogy of Jesus Christ the Son of David, the Son of Abraham.” Why does David’s name appear before Abraham’s? Would not Abraham, the father of the nation, be more significant to a Jewish mind? Perhaps Matthew listed the name of David first because the King who would rule over the nation was to come through David (2 Sam. 7:12-17). Jesus Christ came with a message for His own nation. But in the plan of God, His message was rejected. Therefore a universal message reaches out to the entire world. The promise of blessings for all the nations of the world came through Abraham and the covenant God made with him (Gen. 12:3). It is significant that Matthew did include Gentiles, such as the Magi from the East (Matt. 2:1-12), the centurion with his great faith (Matt. 8:5-13), and the Canaanite woman who had greater faith than Christ had seen in all Israel (Matt. 15:22-28). Also the book concludes with the Great Commission to “go and make disciples of all nations” (Matt. 28:19).

The Bible Knowledge Commentary, New Testament, “Matthew”.

 

The Book of Matthew Commentary was written to give you a better understanding of key passages, difficult passages and a better understanding of what figures of speech Matthew used in his Gospel and what they mean.

Chapter:     4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 3:5

Jerusalem (metonymy – the people of) 1, 4

all (hyperbole – large numbers of people from) 1, 4

Matt. 3:7

brood of vipers (group of deceitful and dangerous ones (4), deadly influence (3)

Matt. 3:10

the axe is already laid at the root of the trees (metaphor – judgment is at hand for the Jews in Jerusalem) 3, 6

thrown into the fire (metaphor – destroyed , which happened in AD 70) 3, 6

Matt. 3:11

He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit (place into vital union with Christ with the Holy Spirit, which took place at Pentecost, Acts 2:1-4, 17; Joel 2:28; 1 Cor. 12:13).

and fire (symbolism – the believing Jews at Christ’s second coming being purified, Mal. 3:1-4, and the unbelieving Jews on the day of judgment being eternally punished, Matt. 3:12; Mal. 4:1) 1, 2, 5

Matt. 3:12

His winnowing fork (metaphor – plan to separate) 1, 2, 4

wheat (metaphor – believing remnant) 1, 2, 4

the barn (metaphor – God’s kingdom, Matt. 13:43) 1, 2, 4

chaff (metaphor – unbelievers, those rejecting Christ) 1, 2, 4

unquenchable fire (metonymy – hell, Matt. 13:36-43; Mk. 9:43, 47-48) 4

Matt. 3:16

as a dove (simile – in the bodily shape/form resembling a dove, and symbolism – because a dove symbolized purity, innocence, and gentleness, Matt. 10:16) 2, 3, 4

 

Chapter:     3 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 4:4

every word (metonymy – the sustaining power) 4

out of the mouth (anthropomorphism – from)

Matt. 4:16

darkness ….light (metaphor – spiritual darkness and spiritual light, and symbolism – Jesus Christ is the light spiritually, Jn. 1:9; 12:46) 1, 2

the land and shadow of death (metaphor – the place of fear, hopelessness, and despondency) 4

a light dawned (metaphor – hope came) 4

Matt. 4:17

kingdom of heaven (metonymy – Christ’s rule on earth, see Matt. 13:11) 2

Matt. 4:19

fishers of men (metaphor – recruiters/catchers of people for Christ’s kingdom) 2, 4

 

Chapter:     3 | 46 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 5:3

the poor in spirit (metaphor – those who recognize their spiritual poverty/depravity and so depend on Christ for their acceptance by God) 2, 4

Matt. 5:6

hunger and thirst for righteousness (metaphor – have a spiritual craving/appetite for personal righteousness) 1, 2, 3, 4

shall be satisfied (metaphor – filled with Christ’s righteousness, Phil. 3:9; Rom. 3:22) 4

Matt. 5:13

salt of the earth (metaphor and symbolism – a retardant against society’s evil, a moral flavor enhancer and a spiritual thirst-creator among society) 1, 2, 3, 4

Matt. 5:14

light of the world (metaphor and symbolism – direction giver (1), moral/spiritual illuminators (2), and exposers of the truth (4).

Matt. 5:16

light shine (morality/spirituality/Christ-likeness be outwardly evident) 3, 4

Matt. 5:29

right eye (synecdoche – heart/inner human nature) 1, 2, 4

stumble (metaphor – fall into sin) 4

tear it out and throw it (hyperbole – deal radically with the source of sin, the heart, 15:19) 1, 2, 4, 5

Matt. 5:30

right hand (same as Matt. 5:29)

Matt. 5:35

it is the footstool of His feet (metaphor – part of His rule, under His authority; integrally identified or associated with God) 2, 4

feet (anthropomorphism – same as above).

Matt. 5:45

sons of (idiom – like or resembling) 3

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 57 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 6:3

do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing (personification – don’t give to be seen publicly for self-glorification) 2, 3

Matt. 6:12

debts (metaphor – moral debts or sins) 1, 2, 3

debtors (metaphor – those who have sinned against us) 2, 3

Matt. 6:21

heart (metaphor – innermost being; affections, thoughts, and devotion) 4

Matt. 6:22

the lamp (metaphor – that which can give one understanding/illumination (2), or guide for direction and illumination (4).

the eye (metonymy – the mind, which can make use of the light) 3, 4

clear (metaphor – single in purpose (3), not double-visioned, Matt. 6:24 (2), unmixed, seeing things directly spiritual, not materially plus spiritually, not double-minded (4).

body will be full of light (metaphor – life will be spiritually guided and enlightened (4); thinking and goals will be right (3).

Matt. 6:23

bad (metaphor – spiritually diseased; obscured by materialism/greed/sin (4).

body will be full of darkness (metaphor – life will be in spiritual darkness and greed (1); life will be misguided with wrong perspectives and goals (4).

the light (metaphor – right thinking, purpose, and goals) 3, 4

darkness (metaphor – wrong thinking, purpose, and goals) 3, 4

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 7:3

speck (metaphor – small fault) 3, 4

eye (metonymy – life) 3, 4

log (metaphor and hyperbole – much greater fault) 3, 4

Matt. 7:6

what is holy ….pearls (metaphor – the precious truths of God, such as the gospel) 2, 4

dogs (metaphor – unholy people (1); haters of truth and righteousness (3); wicked, vicious and despicable, gospel-scorning people (2, 4).

swine (metaphor – filthy, contemptible, and vicious people who reject spiritual truth and/or the gospel (2, 4).

trample them under their feet (metaphor – reject spiritual truth and/or the gospel) 2, 4

turn and tear you to pieces (metaphor – persecute or harm the truth/gospel proclaimer) 4

Matt. 7:8

knocks it will be opened (metaphor – persists in prayer for God to respond will get his request for good) 1, 2, 3, 4

Matt. 7:12

the Law and the Prophets (synecdoche – summary of the Old Testament teaching of God) 1, 2, 3, 4

Matt. 7:13-14

gate (metaphor – entrance way into) 1, 2

narrow and small (metaphor – faith in Christ (2); conversion (4).

wide, and the way is broad (metaphor – self-centered living) 4

destruction (metonymy – spiritual ruin or hell) 1, 2

life (ellipsis or brachylogy – eternal life; metonymy – heaven) 1, 2

Matt. 7:15

in sheep’s clothing (metaphor – harmless looking (1); gentle outwardly (3).

ravenous wolves (metaphor – greedy, cruel, and destructive) 4

Matt. 7:16, 20

fruits (metaphor – doctrines or conformity to Scripture (2); teachings and conduct/character (4).

Matt. 7:24

built his house on the rock (parable – acting upon in faith the words of Christ to do the Father’s will of believing in Jesus Christ, Jn. 6:40) 1, 2, 3

built his house on the sand (parable – not acting upon in faith Christ’s words to do God’s will of believing in Jesus, Jn. 6:40)

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 8:11

from east and west (merism – from all over the world, Gentiles like the Roman centurion) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 8:12

sons of the kingdom (metaphor – Jews who, in this case, were religious, but unbelievers in Jesus as the Christ, Amos 3:1-2; Rom. 9:4) 2, 3, 4

the outer darkness; in that place …. gnashing of teeth (metonymy – hell, Matt. 13:42, 50; 5:22; 18:9) 1, 2

Matt. 8:20

Son of Man (metonymy – a title understood by the Jews for the Christ/Messiah (2), Jn. 12:34; Dan. 7:13-14; Rev. 1:13-18; 14:14 (1), and equivalent to Son of God, Lk. 22:69, 70 (2), with the probable meaning of “the unique Man” (4).

Matt. 8:22

dead to bury their own dead (paradox and metaphor – spiritually dead or unbelievers to bury the physically dead) 1, 2, 3, 4

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 9:12

healthy (metaphor – well spiritually or righteous, Matt. 9:13) 1, 3

physician (metaphor – spiritual healer; Savior)

sick (metaphor – sick spiritually; sinners, Matt. 9:13) 1, 2, 3

Matt. 9:15

attendants of the bridegroom (parable – Jesus’ disciples) 1

bridegroom (parable – Jesus) 1

Matt. 9:16

unshrunk cloth (parable – Jesus’ new kingdom teachings) 1, 2

old garment (parable – Judaism) 1, 2

Matt. 9:17

new wine (parable – Jesus’ new kingdom teachings) 1, 2

old wineskins (parable – Judaism) 1, 2

Matt. 9:18-19, 23-25

my daughter has just died, but come and …she will live (synopsis – daughter was at the point of death initially; then the official was informed of her death, and then Jesus went to heal her, Mk. 5:22-23, 35-42; Lk. 8:41-42, 49-55) 1, 2, 3, 4

Matt. 9:24

asleep (euphemism – temporarily dead, Matt. 9:18) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 9:27

Son of David (metonymy – Messiah, title for, Matt. 12:23; 22:42) 2

Matt. 9:37

the harvest (metaphor – spiritual harvest, the souls of people) 2, 3, 4

workers (metaphor – gospel preachers) 3, 4

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 10:6

lost sheep of the house of Israel (metaphor – unconverted Jews who had been abandoned by their religious leaders, Ezek. 34:5-6) 3

Matt. 10:14

shake the dust off your feet (symbolism – reject the Jewish city as if it were a Gentile city whose very dust is unwanted (1), and the disciples’ freedom from involvement in their opponents’ guilt and coming judgment) 2, 3, 4

Matt. 10:16

as sheep in the midst of wolves (simile – gentle and harmless in the midst of dangerous, vicious opponents (2, 4); defenseless (3, 4); opponents ready to kill like wolves (3).      

shrewd as serpents (simile – wise in avoiding danger (1, 2, 3); cautious, keen, and insightful (4).

innocent as doves (simile – harmless in not forcibly opposing the enemy (1, 2, 3); not deceitful (4).

Matt. 10:22

by all (hyperbole – all in general, all kinds of people) 4

My name (idiom – Me/Christ, who He is and what He stands for/ represents) 4

the one (the disciple/follower/believer of Jesus in the Tribulation period)

saved (delivered into Christ’s kingdom on earth as in 24:13 and Rev. 14:1-4 ; see Matt. 24:13) 1, 2

Matt. 10:23

you (synecdoche – Hebrew evangelizers, both the 12 and future preachers, even in the Tribulation, 24:14; Rev. 11:3) 4

the Son of Man comes (eschatological prophecy – Jesus’ second coming (1, 2); prophetic foreshortening – two separate events seen as one, e.g. Isa. 53:4, 5; 61:1-3; Joel 2:28-31 (4).

Matt. 10:27

in the darkness (metaphor – privately) 1, 2, 3

in the light (metaphor – publicly and fearlessly) 1, 2, 4

upon the housetops (hyperbole – publicly without fear and freely) 1, 2, 3, 4

Matt. 10:34

I did not come to bring peace (paradox with: Isa. 9:6, Prince of peace; Lk. 2:14, peace among men; Jn. 14:27, peace I leave with you).

a sword (symbolism – fighting/conflict (2, 3); division and persecution (4).

Matt. 10:38

cross (symbolism – death) 1-4

take his cross (metaphor – be willing to die for Christ and the gospel) 1, 2, 3, 4

Matt. 10:39

found his life (metaphor – self-centered life and interests) 4

will lose it (metaphor – perish everlastingly) 4

found his life will lose it (paradox) 3

lost his life (metaphor – self-centered life) 4

will find it (metaphor – real living and eternal life) 4

lost his life for My sake will find it (paradox) 3

Matt. 10:40

He who receives you receives Me (trope – by proxy, as the apostles represented Christ) 3, 4

Matt. 10:41

in the name of (idiom – because he is) 2, 4

name (metonymy – indicates the person himself, what or who he/she is) 4

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 11:6

take offense at Me (metaphor – doubting and failing to see Jesus as the Messiah) 1, 2, 5

Matt. 11:7

A reed shaken by the wind (metaphor – A weak and vacillating person) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 11:8

dressed in soft clothing (metaphor – in expensive or fine clothing) 2

Matt. 11:11

born of women (idiom – purely/only human) 1, 2

Matt. 11:12

the kingdom of heaven suffers violence (Christ’s, at hand, physical rule on earth was being hit from all sides, from mobs wanting favors to vicious opponents, 11:2, 18-19; Mk. 1:45; 2:7; 3:6; Lk. 7:30) 2

violent men take it by force (Jewish religious leaders resisted it to establish their own rule, Matt. 26:47, 57; 27:20; Mk. 3:6; Lk. 7:30) 1

Matt. 11:14

(he) himself is Elijah (metonymy – in the spirit and power of, Lk. 1:17, not literally Elijah, Jn. 1:21) 4

Matt. 11:16-17

like children sitting….. we played flutes for you, and you did not dance; we sang a dirge… (simile – John the Baptist and Jesus’ contemporaries/generation were unresponsive to their message/call, and in fact, rejected it) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 11:19

wisdom is vindicated by her deeds (personification – John and Jesus’ actions were proved right by the results, many people came into the kingdom) 1, 2, 3

Matt. 11:21, 23

Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe… Bethsaida… Capernaum (metonymy – the people of these cities) 1, 2

Matt. 11:24

the land of Sodom (metonymy – the people of) 2, 3

Matt. 11:25

to infants (metaphor – those who sense their spiritual helplessness and absolute dependency upon God’s mercy) 2, 4

Matt. 11:28

weary and heavy-laden (metaphor – of man-made religious obligations) 2, 4

rest (metaphor – spiritual rest, forgiveness of sins, eternal life, and peace of mind) 2, 4

Matt. 11:29

yoke (metaphor – obligation (4), or schooling/teaching (5).

Matt. 11:30

My yoke is easy (metaphor – My obligation or teaching is easy, to just believe) 2, 4

My burden is light (metaphor – obedience to Christ is not difficult because of His enablement) 4

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 12:7

I desire compassion, and not a sacrifice (proper hearts or inner spiritual qualities are more desirable than mere external formality) 1, 2

Matt. 12:19

quarrel, nor cry out (public ranting and raving, riotous screaming or fighting) 2, 4

voice in the streets (public political demagoguery) 2, 4

Matt. 12:20

not break off, ……not put out (litotes – He will be compassionate, meek, gentle, of tender concern to those near exhaustion, in despair, repentant, feeble, helpless) 2, 3, 4

He leads justice (personification) to victory (metonymy – Judgment Day) 4

Matt. 12:23

Son of David (metonymy – Messiah, see Matt. 9:27)

Matt. 12:27

your sons (idiom – contemporary Jewish exorcists who were associates or disciples of the Pharisees) 1, 2, 3, 4

Matt. 12:32

this age (present time until Christ’s second coming, see Matt. 13:39) 1

the age to come (time period after Christ’s second coming)

Matt. 12:33

make (consider to be) 4

the tree (metaphor – Jesus) 4

the fruit (metaphor – demon-expulsion) 4

the tree is known by its fruit (metaphor – who Jesus is is shown by what He does) 4

Matt. 12:34

brood of vipers (metaphor – see Matt. 3:7)

heart (inner character/being/nature) 4

Matt. 12:35

treasure (metaphor – heart/nature/inner being) 3, 4

Matt. 12:38

a sign (metonymy – attesting miracle) 2, 4

Matt. 12:39

adulterous generation (metaphor – a nation spiritually unfaithful to God, Jer. 3:8, 14, 20) 1, 2, 3, 4

sign of Jonah (metonymy – his being released alive from his entombment) 2, 4

Matt. 12:40

just as … (simile)

three days and three nights (idiom – since the Jews considered a part of a day as a full day, a Friday crucifixion and a Sunday resurrection would fit (1, 2, 3), or synecdoche – day-night as one time unit, any part of this time unit counted as the whole of it (4).

heart of the earth (metaphor – grave/tomb) 3, 4

Matt. 12:43

a man (parabolic symbol – wicked Israel) 1, 2, 4

waterless places (demonic haven) 2

Matt. 12:44

house (parable – the man’s body (5), symbolizing Israel)

unoccupied, swept, and put in order (parable – reformed or religious, possibly by John and Jesus’ ministries, but unconverted) 1, 2

Matt. 12:49

My mother and My brothers (metaphor – spiritual family) 2, 3, 4

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 13:12

For whoever has, to him more shall be given (ellipsis – knowledge with understanding of the truths or mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, Matt. 13:51; Mk. 4:34) 1, 2, 5

even what he has shall be taken away (ellipsis – in terms of knowledge about the kingdom of heaven will be forgotten, Matt. 13:9) 4

Matt. 13:31

a mustard seed (parable – Christendom’s small beginning) 1, 2, 4

a man (parable – Christ, Mk. 1:14-15) 2

Matt. 13:32

a tree (parable – expansion of Christianity, Matt. 28:19-20; Acts 17:6; 1:8) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 13:33

leaven (parable – evil/sin or false teaching, Matt. 16:6, 12; Gal. 5:9; 1 Cor. 5:6-8) 1, 2

flour (parable – Christendom)

until it was all leavened (parable – false doctrine infiltrating all regions/areas where Christendom is at) 2

Matt. 13:38

the sons of the kingdom (parable and idiom – like people of Christ’s kingdom; Christ’s true followers; those having Jesus as their king) 2, 4

the sons of the evil one (parable and idiom – like/resembling evil or the devil, but masquerading as believers, 2 Cor. 11:13-15) 2, 4

Matt. 13:39

end of the age (metonymy – Christ’s second coming) 1, 2, 3

Matt. 13:41

stumbling blocks (metaphor – everything that’s offensive; all impurities) 4

Matt. 13:42

furnace of fire (metaphor – hell, Matt. 5:22; 18:9) 1, 4

Matt. 13:43

shine forth as the sun (simile – radiate righteous character and conduct; Christ’s glory unhindered by corrupting influences) 3, 4

Matt. 13:44

a treasure hidden in the field (parable – Israel, Ex. 19:5; Psa. 135:4) 1

a man … sells all that he has (parable – Christ leaves heaven and comes to earth to be crucified for the sins of His elect/chosen, Jn. 10:11, 15; 2 Cor. 8:9; Phil. 2:5-8; Rom. 11:26, 27) 1

Matt. 13:45-46

a merchant (parable – Christ) 1, 2

fine pearls (parable – people who would respond to Him) 2

one pearl of great value (parable – the Church, Eph. 5:25; Rom. 12:5; 1 Cor. 12:12-13) 1, 2

sold all that he had and bought it (parable – was crucified and bought the Church with His blood, Acts 20:28; 1 Cor. 6:20) 1, 2

Matt. 13:47

dragnet (parable – the Gospel, Matt. 4:19, 23) 1, 4

gathering fish of every kind (parable – gets various types of responses that may seem positive at first, Matt. 13:20-22, and some actually are, Matt. 13:23) 1, 4

Matt. 13:52

scribe who has become a disciple … is like a…  (simile – a Jewish scribe who becomes a believer in Christ and learner of the kingdom is like a head of a house who provides for his family from his storeroom both new and old things, Old Testament truths and New Testament truths, such as those revealed in these parables) 2, 4

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 14:4

to have her (idiom or ellipsis – as your wife) 2

Matt. 14:30

seeing the wind (metonymy – the effects of the wind on the water) 1, 2, 4

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 15:8

lips (metonymy – words; outwardly) 4

heart (metaphor – inwardly; inner being and affections) 4

Matt. 15:11

what enters into the mouth (parable, Matt. 15:15 – food eaten with unwashed hands, Matt. 15:20) 4

defiles (parable – makes morally unclean, Matt. 15:18-20) 4

what proceeds out of the mouth (parable – words or actions that stem from the heart/sin nature, see Matt. 12:34-37; 15:18-19) 2, 4

Matt. 15:13

Every plant ….. shall be uprooted (metaphor – every person that isn’t one of God’s chosen ones, like these Pharisees, will be judged to condemnation, Matt. 13:38-40; Jn. 6:44, 65) 1, 4

Matt. 15:14

blind guides of the blind (parable, Lk. 6:39 – spiritually blind) 2, 4

pit (parable – disaster, and possibly hell) 4

Matt. 15:22

Son of David (see Matt. 9:27)

Matt. 15:24

lost sheep of the house of Israel (see Matt. 10:6)

Matt. 15:26

children’s bread (parable – Israelite blessings from God) 1, 2

dogs (parable and metaphor – Gentiles) 1, 2

Matt. 15:27

crumbs (parable – one of God’s blessings for Israel) 1, 2

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 16:1

sign from heaven (metonymy – attesting miracle of heavenly origin, see Matt. 12:38) 2, 4

Matt. 16:4

sign of Jonah (see Matt. 12:39)

Matt. 16:6

leaven (metaphor – teaching, Matt. 16:12, that was wrong, and like yeast was penetrating and influential)

Matt. 16:13

Son of Man (see Matt. 8:20)1, 2, 4

Matt. 16:17

flesh and blood (idiom – mere man or humans, Gal. 1:16; Eph. 6:12) 2, 3, 4                     

Matt. 16:18

rock (metaphor – Jesus Christ, 1 Cor. 3:11; 10:4; 1 Pet. 2:6-8) 1, 2, 3

Peter …… rock (paronomasia – in Greek Peter is “Petros” and in Aramaic it’s “Kepha”, while in Gk., “rock” is “petra” and in Aramaic it’s “kepha”) 4

gates of Hades (idiom – death, Isa. 38:10; Psa. 107:18) 1, 2, 3, 5

not overpower it (metaphor – not have victory over the Church by keeping its foundation and head, Christ, imprisoned, Matt. 16:21; Acts 2:24, 31) 1, 2, 3, 5

Matt. 16:19

keys (symbolism – authority to open the doors) 2

of the kingdom (trope – Christ’s spiritual kingdom/rule; the realm in which Christ, the ruler, acts to carry out His will, Matt. 6:10; eternal life in Christ’s kingdom in heaven, Col. 1:13; Phil. 3:20; Heb. 12:22-24, 28).

keys of the kingdom (metaphor – the authority to officially open the kingdom to the Jews at Pentecost, Acts 2, and to the Gentiles in Acts 10) 2

whatever you bind on earth (metaphor – forbid) 4, 5

shall have been bound in heaven (metaphor – the binding or forbidding first happened in heaven) 4

in heaven (metonymy – by God) 1

whatever you loose (metaphor – permit) 4, 5

whatever you …. (Peter would simply carry out what God had already said or directed. Later, Jesus would say this to all the church and all the disciples, Matt. 18:18; Jn. 20:23) 1, 4 (If the Bible, God’s Word states something, then believers can repeat it, in context, and forbid or permit, as well, whatever God states.

Matt. 16:23

Get behind Me, Satan (idiom – Get out of My sight or Be gone, for Satan was using Peter as his mouthpiece) 1, 2, 4

stumbling block (metaphor – detouring trap) 4, 5

Matt. 16:24

come after (idiom – follow, join, be counted as an adherent of) 4

deny himself (the self-life, his selfish interests and ambitions) 1, 4

take up his cross (see Matt. 10:38)

follow (literally, when Jesus was here physically, and by metonymy – to obey Jesus, His words, whether He’s physically here or not) 4

Matt. 16:25

whoever …. will find it (paradox – see Matt. 10:39)

save his life (basically the same as “found” in Matt. 10:39)

Matt. 16:28

taste death (metaphor – experience it or die) 1, 4

in His kingdom (metonymy – in His kingdom glory, 2 Pet. 1:16-18, as seen in His transformation, Matt. 17:2)1, 2

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 17:2

shone like the sun (simile – radiated bright light) 1

as white as light (simile – irradiated blazing light) 3

Matt. 17:6

fell on their faces (idiom – laid prostrate on the ground, Matt. 18:26)

Matt. 17:9

vision (what they literally saw or witnessed rather than a supernatural presentation of something to merely their minds that wasn’t historically real. The Greek word “orama” can mean “seen” or “saw” as it does in Mk. 9:9; Lk. 9:36; Acts 7:31) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 17:12

Elijah already came (metonymy – John he Baptist, Matt. 17:13. Also see Matt. 11:14) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 17:20

faith the size of a mustard seed (simile – as small/tiny as) 1, 2, 4

nothing shall be impossible to you (assuming it’s God’s will and with the right motives, 1 Jn. 5:14-15; James 4:3) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 17:25

from strangers (non-royal family members that are subjects) 5

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 1719 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 18:3

become like children (simile – are humble, Matt. 18:4) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 18:5

in My name (metonymy – because of or on the basis of the person’s identification with Christ or because the person belongs to, or for Christ’s sake) 2, 4, 5

Matt. 18:6

to stumble (metaphor – trapped to sin (1, 4), or have their faith harmed (2).

Matt. 18:7

stumbling blocks (metaphor – traps or enticements to sin) 4, 5

Matt. 18:8-9

hand … cut it off …. eye…. pluck it out (see Matt. 5:29-30)

Matt. 18:10

their angels …. face of My Father (i.e. are in constant touch with the Father regarding assignments, Psa. 91:11; Heb. 1:14) 1

face (anthropomorphism – see above)

Matt. 18:14

perish (metaphor – be morally ruined or go to hell, Jn. 3:15-16; 10:27-28; 1 Cor. 1:18; 2 Pet. 3:9) 4

Matt. 18:17

as a Gentile and a tax collector (simile – treated as an outsider (1-4); excommunicated (4).

Matt. 18:18

(see Matt. 16:19, “you”, all the apostles) 1

Matt. 18:19

if two of you (i.e. apostles/disciples, Matt. 18:1)

anything (ellipsis – regarding church discipline, Matt. 18:17-18)

they …. them (i.e. the church)

Matt. 18:20

in My name (metonymy – because of their common identification, relationship, and fellowship with Christ)

there I am in their midst (trope – spiritually present) 4

Matt. 18:22

seventy times seven (meiosis – unlimited times) 1, 3, 4

Matt. 18:30

threw him (metaphor – had him put)

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 1820 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 19:4

the beginning (ellipsis – of creation)

Matt. 19:5

one flesh (metaphor – one pair; a compound oneness, in Hebrew “echad”, Gen. 2:24; Ezra 2:64; Ezek. 37:17 (3); intimate, lasting attachment (4).

Matt. 19:6

no longer two (ellipsis – not two independent individuals or entities any longer)

separate (ellipsis – by divorce) 1, 3

Matt. 19:8

hardness of heart (metaphor – stubborn attitude or mind) 4

the beginning (ellipsis – of the institution of marriage) 4

Matt. 19:10

is like this (ellipsis – permanent once married) 1

Matt. 19:11

only those to whom it has been given (idiom – only for such as it is divinely intended) 3, 4

Matt. 19:12

made eunuchs (i.e. castrated) 1, 4

made themselves eunuchs for … heaven (metaphor – voluntarily decided to stay single to serve Christ’s kingdom on earth) 2, 3, 4, 5

Matt. 19:13, 15

lay His hands on them (a symbolical act indicating the impartation of some blessing) 4

Matt. 19:14

the kingdom … as these (metaphor – those with childlike faith) 2, 4

Matt. 19:17

life (brachylogy or ellipsis – eternal life, Matt. 19:16)

keep the commandments (by stating this, Jesus is trying to show the rich man that he isn’t good, as defined by God, so as to obtain eternal life by that means. Only One is good, God, Matt. 19:17)

Matt. 19:21

if you wish to be complete (without lack, with no disqualifying quality; perfect)

sell … give … follow Me (as evidence of his faith in Christ and not in the god of materialism/riches)2, 4

Matt. 19:23

kingdom of heaven (same as eternal life in Matt. 19:16, kingdom of God in Matt. 19:24, and “saved” in Matt. 19:25)

Matt. 19:24

it is easier … kingdom of God (hyperbole – not many rich people get in God’s kingdom, Matt. 19:23) 5

Matt. 19:25

who can be saved (the disciples thought that riches indicated divine favor, so if rich people could not be saved, who could) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 19:26

with men … but with God … (salvation or entering God’s kingdom is a humanly impossible work, but is possible with God’s grace) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 19:28

in the regeneration (rebirth or renewal of all things after Christ’s second coming; millennium) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 19:30

many who are first will be last; and the last, first (paradox and ellipsis – many who are first in this life, like the rich man – Matt. 19:22-23, will be last in the next life, and many that are last in this life, like the apostles who gave up everything to follow Christ – Matt. 19:27, will be first in the next life – Matt. 19:28)

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 1921 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 20:1

landowner (parable – God/Christ) 1, 4     

to hire laborers (parable – calls people for His kingdom)

for his vineyard (parable – for service to Christ)

Matt. 20:12

you have made them equal to us (parable – equal faithfulness in service to/for Christ from the time a person is called into His kingdom by the Lord will be equally rewarded) 2

Matt. 20:16

last … first, and the first last (paradox and ellipsis – late-comers into Christ’s kingdom will be treated with equality with those who came in first. See Matt. 20:12)

Matt. 20:22

Are you (plural, the two sons) 1

to drink (metaphor – take or experience

the cup (symbolism – suffering/persecution, even martyrdom, Matt. 20:18-19; 26:39, 42; Jn. 18:11) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Matt. 20:28

for many (i.e. believers, God’s elect – Jn. 10:11, 15; Rom. 8:32-35) 4

Matt. 20:30

Son of David (see Matt. 9:27)

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 2022 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 21:5

Daughter of Zion (metaphor – Jerusalem or Israel, Isa. 22:4, 10) 4

Matt. 21:19

No longer … fruit from you (apostrophe)

Matt. 21:21-22

if you have faith … you will receive (a promise given only to Jesus’ apostles/disciples)

Matt. 21:25

from heaven (metonymy – from or of God ) 2, 4

Matt. 21:33

landowner (parable – God) 4

vineyard (parable – Jerusalem or Israel, Isa. 5:1-7 (1, 2, 3, 4), or the kingdom of God, Matt. 21:43 (2).

vine-growers (parable – Pharisees and chief priests, Matt. 21:45) 1, 2, 3, 4

Matt. 21:34

slaves (parable – God’s prophets) 1, 2, 3, 4

Matt. 21:37

son (parable – Christ) 1, 2, 3, 4

Matt. 21:39

vineyard (parable – Jerusalem, Heb. 13:12) 1, 3

Matt. 21:41

other vine-growers (parable – the Church. See Matt. 21:43 “a nation”)

those wretches to a wretched end (paronomasia – miserably destroy in judgment) 3

Matt. 21:42

the stone (metaphor – Christ, Acts 4:11)

Matt. 21:43

a people (metaphor – born again believers, the Church, 1 Pet. 2:9; 1:1, 3, 23; mainly Gentile believers, Rom. 10:19; 11:13) 2, 3, 4

the fruit of it (metaphor – faith in Christ) 1, 2

Matt. 21:44

falls on this stone (metaphor – doesn’t recognize or rejects Jesus as the Christ) 5

will be broken to pieces (metaphor – spiritually ruined) 3, 5

on whomever it falls, it … like dust (metaphor – judged to hell, Matt. 3:12) 5

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 22:2

kingdom of heaven (parable – Christ’s rule on earth) 1

king (parable – God) 2, 3

wedding feast (parable – the Messianic kingdom, Isa. 25:6) 2

son (parable – Christ, Jn. 3:29, bridegroom) 2

Matt. 22:3

slaves (parable – John the Baptist, the apostles) 1, 2

those who had been invited (parable – Israel) 1, 2

Matt. 22:4

other slaves (parable – all preachers of the gospel) 3

Matt. 22:7

armies (parable – General Titus and the Roman army in AD 70 destroyed Jerusalem) 1, 2, 3, 4

Matt. 22:9

Go… to the main highways, and as many as you find, invite (parable – anyone, Gentile or Jew) 2, 3, 4

Matt. 22:10

both evil and good (parable – morally correct and open sinners) 2, 3

Matt. 22:11

a man there who was not dressed in wedding clothes (parable – one not having the righteousness imputed through faith in Christ, Isa. 61:10) 2, 3, 4

Matt. 22:13

outer darkness … gnashing of teeth (parable and metonymy – hell) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 22:14

many are called, but few are chosen (metaphor – invited to be saved as the gospel is preached, but few are selected/elected to be saved by God) 1, 2, 3, 4      

Matt. 22:21

the things that are Caesar’s (synecdoche – taxes) 1, 2, 4

the things that are God’s (synecdoche – service, gratitude, divine honor, supreme obedience and trust, worship, your life, etc.) 2, 4

Matt. 22:28

all had her (ellipsis – as a wife) 1, 2

Matt. 22:30

like angels in heaven (simile – not having sex with other angels to procreate more angels (1), or in the matter of marriage, not being married (2, 4).

Matt. 22:37

heart (metonymy – will) 6

soul (metonymy – emotion/feeling) 3, 4

mind (metonymy – thinking/reasoning) 2, 3, 4

Matt. 22:40

depend (are developed and amplified or summarized) 1, 2

Matt. 22:42

whose son (descendant or lineage) 2

Matt. 22:43

in the Spirit (under the control of the Holy Spirit or by supernatural revelation from the Holy Spirit) 2, 4

Matt. 22:44

my LORD (Heb. “adoney” used only of God, is said by David of the coming Messiah/Christ, the son of David) 1

Matt. 22:45

his son (human descendent) 1, 2, 4

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 23:2

seated themselves in the chair of Moses (metaphor – occupy Moses’ position as expounder of the Law) 2, 3

Matt. 23:3

therefore all that they tell you (in so far as their teaching presents what Moses gave, and not absolutely everything they tell you, as seen in Matt. 15:3-11; 12:2; 16:11-12) 2, 3, 4

Matt. 23:4

they tie up … on men’s shoulders (metaphor – add multitudinous human, religious rules to the Mosaic Law) 2

unwilling to move them with so much as a finger (metaphor – not sympathetic helpers) 2, 5

Matt. 23:8

do not be called Rabbi (ellipsis – seek to be called by these titles due to pride, Matt. 23:5-7) 1, 2, 3, 4

Matt. 23:9

Do not call anyone on earth your father (ellipsis – fatherhood in the spiritual sense of superiority rather than in the sense of a spiritual caretaker, 1 Cor. 4:15, or discipler) 2, 3, 4

Matt. 23:10

Do not be called leaders (ellipsis – don’t seek to be called leader out of pride (1, 2, 3, 4), but being called a leader, if one qualifies is biblical, Lk. 22:26; Heb. 13:17, 24; Gal. 2:9)

Matt. 23:12

Whoever exalts … and whoever humble himself shall be exalted (paradox – whoever boasts of superiority in word or attitude will be humbled by God, and whoever has a servant attitude and conduct will be promoted by God, James 4:6) 6    

Matt. 23:13

shut off … from people (metaphor – prevent the Jews from accepting Christ and His kingdom because of their influence and antagonism toward Jesus) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 23:14

devour widows’ houses (metaphor – obtained possession of these helpless people’s property) 3

Matt. 23:15

twice as much a son of hell as yourselves (metaphor – twice as pharisaic (2, 3), and/or deserving of hell (1, 4).

Matt. 23:16

blind guides (see Matt. 15:14)

that is nothing (is not obligated to keep his oath) 1, 2, 3, 4

Matt. 23:17

sanctified (makes sacred or sets it apart to God) 4

Matt. 23:20-22

swears by … both by … and by (since the more important or greater includes the less important or smaller, and since God owns and controls all; therefore, every oath is binding) 1, 4

Matt. 23:24

who strain out a gnat and swallow a camel (metaphor – who paid great attention and obedience to the religious rituals of the Mosaic Law at the expense of neglecting the more important moral or character laws, Matt. 23:23) 1, 4

Matt. 23:26

first clean the inside … so that the outside … clean also (first clean the inner corruption so that the outward behavior will follow suit automatically) 1

Matt. 23:31

sons (descendants, not only in blood, but in spirit and disposition) 6

Matt. 23:32

Fill up … the measure … of your fathers (irony – go ahead and add to what your fathers did by your killing Me and those I send, but you’ll suffer in hell for it) 1, 5

fathers (ancestors) 1

Matt. 23:33

serpents, you brood of vipers (see Matt. 3:7)

Matt. 23:35

upon you (this generation) 1, 4

may fall the guilt of all the righteous blood (God’s judgment will come upon them because these Jews were of one mind/spirit with their Jewish fathers in murdering the righteous of the Old Testament. Had these Jews been there, they would have murdered the righteous just like they will Christ’s messengers) 2, 4

from … Abel to the blood of Zechariah (merism – the first righteous martyr to the last one in the Old Testament Hebrew canon, as 2 Chronicles is the last book in the Hebrew Bible) 1, 2, 4

son of (descendant of) 1

you murdered (synecdoche and metaphor – you Jews, your ancestors, and you in attitude or mind with them) 2, 4

Matt. 23:37

Jerusalem (metonymy – the people of Jerusalem, or synecdoche – the nation of Israel (1, 4)

Matt. 23:38

your house (your temple, Matt. 24:1) 2, 3

Matt. 23:39

from now on you will not see Me (ellipsis – in a public ministry) 2, 4

you say, “Blessed … LORD” (metonymy – Christ’s second coming) 1, 2, 4

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 2325 | 26 | 27 | 28

Matt. 24:3

the end of the age (idiom – the present age/period before the kingdom of Christ is set up on earth at His second coming, Matt. 19:28; 23:39) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 24:4-14

(probably refers to the first half of the Tribulation period after the Rapture) 2

Matt. 24:8

beginning of birth pangs (metaphor – signs of the nearness of this age’s end) 1

Matt. 24:9

you (believing Jews during the Tribulation period) 1, 2

Matt. 24:10

fall away (ellipsis – from the faith (1), or their profession of faith (6).

Matt. 24:12

most people’s love (ellipsis – for God (1) and/or the brotherhood (5).

will grow cold (metaphor – will greatly diminish) 5

Matt. 24:13

endures to the end (ellipsis – of the 7 year Tribulation period) 1

the one who (those who remain faithful to the Lord) 1

will be saved (ellipsis – physically delivered into Christ’s earthly kingdom) 1

Matt. 24:14

gospel of the kingdom (good news concerning salvation in Christ and His soon coming kingdom to be established on earth) 1, 2

then the end will come (see Matt. 24:3)

Matt. 24:15

abomination of desolation (metonymy – the Antichrist or world dictator who is the prince in Dan. 9:26-27 or the man of lawlessness/sin or the son of destruction in 2 Thes. 2:3-4 or the beast in Rev. 13:4-8 because he demands to be worshiped in the holy temple at the middle of the 7 year Tribulation period, and it’s extremely disgusting, causing horror because he defiles the temple of God and stops the regular Jewish sacrifices that are reinstituted during the Tribulation, Dan. 12:11) 1, 2

Matt. 24:21

great tribulation (great distress, Dan. 12:1, and persecution of Israel) 2

Matt. 24:22

those days (trope – that period of time of the Antichrist’s rule in the Tribulation, Matt. 24:29) 1, 2

had been cut (the prophetic perfect tense is the perfect of confidence and is used to denote a future event as an accomplished fact – Dr. Bruce Waltke.)

no life (ellipsis – of Jews in Israel) 3

saved (physically) 1, 6

elect (God’s chosen for salvation people (4) who are in the Tribulation)

Matt. 24:24

signs (see Matt. 12:38)

wonders (miracles viewed from their effect on the spectators) 4

Matt. 24:27

as the lightning comes … so will the coming … (simile – suddenly, brilliantly visible across the entire sky for all to see, Rev. 1:7) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 24:28

the corpse is, there the vultures will gather (proverb and metaphor – the spiritually dead or wicked people are, there God’s agents of judgment will be to gather them for judgment, Matt. 13:39-40; Lk. 17:37) 1, 2, 3, 4

Matt. 24:29

the powers of the heavens (metonymy – the physical universe (2); the sun, moon, and stars, Joel 2:10; Lk. 21:25-26) 1

Matt. 24:30

the sign of the Son of Man (probably Christ appearing in glory/majesty in the sky on clouds surrounded by a multitude of angels, Matt. 16:27; 25:31) 4, 5, 6

all the tribes of the earth (metaphor – many individuals from each people grouping or nation) 1, 6

will mourn (probably because they’re about to be judged by the One they rejected, Rev. 1:7) 1

Matt. 24:31

from the four winds … (metaphor – from all over the world and heaven, Mk. 13:27) 1

Matt. 24:33

all these things (in Matt. 24:4-28) 1

Matt. 24:34

this generation will not pass away (the future generation living when the events of Matt. 24:4-28 take place will not be removed, Matt. 13:39-43) 1

until all these things take place (in Matt. 24:4-28) 1, 6

Matt. 24:35

Heaven and earth will pass away (be removed, Rev. 21:1; 2 Pet. 3:10)

My words will not pass … (ellipsis – regarding what He said in Matt. 24:4-34 (2, 6), they shall not fail) 1

Matt. 24:36

of that day and hour no one knows (the precise moment regarding Christ’s second coming) 1

nor the Son (speaking of His purely human knowledge, not His divine omniscience, Phil. 2:7; Lk. 2:52) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 24:40-41

one will be taken (ellipsis – away to judgment, Matt. 13:39-42; the wicked, unbelieving) 2

and one will be left (ellipsis – on earth to enter Christ’s kingdom blessing, Matt. 13:43; the righteous, believing) 2

Matt. 24:45

master (parable – Christ)

the faithful and sensible slave (parable – those whose obedience to Christ reflect their faith in Christ) 2, 4

household (parable – God’s people, Matt. 25:34-40)

give them their food (parable – care for those in need, Matt. 25:34-40)

Matt. 24:47

all his possessions (parable – greater rewards, privileges, responsibilities, and honor) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 24:48

evil slave (parable – those whose disobedience to Christ reflects their disbelief in Christ) 2

Matt. 24:51

assign him a place …; weeping … (parable and metonymy – hell, Matt. 8:12)

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 2426 | 27 | 28

Matt. 25:1

ten virgins (parable – professing Jewish remnant in the Tribulation) 2

bridegroom (parable – Christ) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 25:2

Five of them were foolish (parable – Jews who were religious, but not ready to meet the Messiah/Christ (2, 4); unsaved people (3).

five were prudent (parable – Jews who were believers and were ready to meet and participate in the kingdom activities of Christ) 2, 4

Matt. 25:3

oil (parable – what’s necessary to meet and join in the festivities of Christ at His second coming, probably symbolism for the Holy Spirit, 1 Sam. 16:13; Isa. 61:1; Zech. 4:2-6) 2, 3

Matt. 25:9

buy (parable – obtain properly or legitimately, Isa. 55:1; Rev. 3:18) 3

Matt. 25:12

I do not know you (parable – not true believers, children of God, Matt. 7:21-23; 2 Tim. 2:19) 4

Matt. 25:14

a man (parable – Christ) 1, 2

own slaves (parable – Jews in the Tribulation) 1

Matt. 25:15

talents (parable – responsibilities) 1, 2

Matt. 25:19

came (parable – Christ’s second coming)

Matt. 25:20, 22

gained more (obedience that’s indicative of their faith in Christ)

Matt. 25:21, 23

enter into the joy of your master (parable – Christ’s kingdom) 2

Matt. 25:24

reaping where you did not sow (parable – profiting from the labor of others) 2

Matt. 25:25

hid your talent (parable – wasn’t responsible to the task given, thereby showing disbelief in Christ) 1

Matt. 25:29

who has, more shall be given (parable and ellipsis – has responsibilities shall be given more responsibilities)

the one who does not have (parable and ellipsis – doesn’t have increased responsibilities)

Matt. 25:30

outer darkness … (see Matt. 8:12)

Matt. 25:32

nations (people living from all the nations at the time of Christ’s second coming) 1, 2

Matt. 25:33

sheep (metaphor – those Gentiles who became believers during the Tribulation as demonstrated by their actions and Christ’s comments, Matt. 25:34-40) 1, 2

goats (metaphor – those Gentiles who didn’t become believers during the Tribulation as demonstrated by their actions and Christ’s comments, Matt. 25:41-46) 1, 2

Matt. 25:35-36

I was …. (metonymy – Jewish believers were, Matt. 25:40)

Matt. 25:40

brothers of Mine (believing Jews) 1, 2

Matt. 26:18

My time is near (ellipsis – time of My crucifixion) 6

Matt. 26:23

his hand (metonymy – his bread in the broth with Me in the common bowl) 4, 5

Matt. 26:24

is to go (euphemism – is to die) 1, 4

Matt. 26:25

You have said it yourself (idiom – “yes”, you said it yourself (4); it is as you have said (6))

Matt. 26:26

this is My body (symbolism and/or metaphor – this bread represents My body) 1, 2, 4, 5, 6

Matt. 26:28

this is My blood (symbolism and/or metaphor – this cup of wine represents My blood) 1, 2, 4, 5, 6

many (metonymy – believers, Jn. 10:11, 15; Acts 20:28 (2); not all/everyone (4))

Matt. 26:31

shepherd (metaphor – Jesus) 1, 2, 4

sheep (metaphor – Jesus’ disciples) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 26:32

raised (ellipsis – from the dead) 1, 4

Matt. 26:39

fell on His face (metaphor – laid prostrate (6); cast Himself face down to the ground (4))

cup (symbolism – death and separation from the Father (1); divine wrath at the cross, separation from the Father (2); suffering (4, 6))

pass (be spared or taken away)

Matt. 26:41

the spirit is willing (the spiritual nature illuminated by the Holy Spirit) 2

the flesh is weak (metaphor – the human nature) 4, 6

Matt. 26:42

drink it (metaphor – take or experience it) 4

Matt. 26:45

the hour is at hand (see Matt. 26:18)

Matt. 26:47

one of the twelve (ellipsis – 12 disciples)

Matt. 26:48

sign (signal)

Matt. 26:52

all those who take up the sword shall perish by the sword (proverb – those who foolishly fight will foolishly die in a fight) 4, 6

Matt. 26:61

destroy the temple of God (metaphor – lay down My life, Jn. 10:17-18) 1, 2, 5

Matt. 26:64

You have said it yourself (see Matt. 26:25 and Mk. 14:62)

sitting at the right hand of power (symbolism – in dignity and authority, functioning in the position of Judge as God (2, 4); next to God Almighty (6))

Matt. 26:73

the way you talk (your accent (1, 4) and pronunciation (2); dialect (5))

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 2628

Matt. 27:4

innocent blood (metonymy – a person not worthy of death (1); innocent person (6))

See to that yourself (idiom – that’s/it’s your problem) 4

Matt. 27:6

the price (ellipsis – the price paid) 1, 4

of blood (metonymy and ellipsis – to bring about a man’s death) 1, 4

Matt. 27:24

blood (metonymy – death) 4

see to that yourselves (see Matt. 27:4)

Matt. 27:25

His blood (metonymy – responsibility for His death) 1, 4

Matt. 27:32

pressed (metaphor – compelled, forced) 1, 2, 4, 5

Matt. 27:39

hurling (metaphor – continually crying out) 6

Matt. 27:45

darkness fell (metaphor – darkness came) 1

Matt. 27:50

yielded up His spirit (died voluntarily) 1, 2, 4

Matt. 27:52

fallen asleep (euphemism – died) 4, 5, 6

Matt. 27:62

the preparation (ellipsis – the day of preparation for the Passover, Jn. 19:14; the day before the Passover Feast (2); the day before the Sabbath (5, 6))

Matt. 27:65

a guard (ellipsis – of Roman soldiers) 1, 5

Matt. 27:66

a seal (the official Roman seal with cord and wax so that tampering could be detected) 1, 2

 

Chapter:     3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27

Matt. 28:3

like lightning (simile – being glorious (3), or radiant (4, 6))

Matt. 28:4

like dead men (simile – unconscious (1, 4) and motionless (4))

Matt. 28:14

governor’s ear (metonymy – attention) 1, 3

Matt. 28:19

in the name (metonymy – in being brought into association 1 into or vital relationship with 4, 8 or identification with 7)

of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit (three persons in the one God) 1, 4

Matt. 28:20

all (ellipsis – all universal truths (1, 4, 6), or Christ’s precepts outlining the proper manner of life for His followers (2), but certainly not every personal command He gave just for them only)

I am with you always (spiritually, not physically)

end of the age (metonymy – Christ’s second coming, see Matt. 13:39) 5

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. The Bible Knowledge Commentary, New Testament, by Drs. J. Walvoord and R. Zuck.
  2. The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, by Drs. C. Pheiffer and E. Harrison.
  3. Commentary on the Whole Bible, by Drs. R. Jamieson, A. Fausset, and D. Brown.
  4. New Testament Commentary – The Gospel of Matthew, by Dr. W. Hendriksen.
  5. Word Pictures in the New Testament, vol. 1, by Dr. A.T. Robertson.
  6. Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible, vol. 3, by M. Henry.
  7. Expository Dictionary of Bible Words, by Dr. L. Richards, p. 454.
  8. Word Studies in the New Testament, vol. 1, by Dr. M. Vincent, p. 84.

 

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