Many times in discussions with people concerning predestination versus free-will, Bible passages using the word “all” are used to eisegetically* prove the free-will position.  So let’s back up and examine all the New Testament passages that use the word “all” and see what they really mean in their context.

Matthew 1:17  “all the generations from Abraham to David are 14 generations; and from David to the deportation to Babylon 14 generations; and from the deportation to Babylon to the time of Christ 14 generations.”

According to Drs. J. Walvoord and R. Zuck, on page 18 of The Bible Knowledge Commentary, NT., “Matthew obviously did not list every individual in the genealogy between Abraham and David, between David and the Exile, and between the Exile and Jesus. Jewish reckoning did not require every name to satisfy a genealogy.”

Or, as Dr. W. Hendriksen states, on page 116 and 129 of New Testament Commentary – The Gospel of Matthew,  “…on the assumption that no Messianic link has been omitted, it would follow that Rahab, who lived at the time of Israel’s entrance into Canaan (Joshua 2 and 6), was the great-great-grandmother of David for the sequence presented here (Matt. 1:5-6) is Rahab, Boaz, Obed, Jesse, David. This result would be very difficult to harmonize with 1 Kings 6:1, where, even when the necessary subtractions are made, a considerably longer period is implied for the span Rahab to David. Matthew evidently did not deem it necessary to mention a representative of each passing generation. Neither did other Bible writers (compare Ezra 7:3 with 1 Chron. 6:7-9).” Also, in Matt. 1:8, three names are omitted (Ahaziah, 2 Kings 8:25; Joash, 2 Kings 11:21; and Amaziah, 2 Kings 14:1). “The word ‘all’ must be interpreted in the light of its context; hence, the meaning is: all the generations covered in this record (Matt. 1:2-16) of ancestry”, rather than all the generations inclusively from Abraham to the time of Christ.

Matthew 4:8  “the devil took Him to a very high mountain and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory.”

From no mountain in the world can a person see all the kingdoms of the world, either then or now. This is an example of a synecdoche, a figure of speech, where a more comprehensive or inclusive term is used for a less comprehensive or inclusive term, or where the whole is used for a part or vice versa (The Oxford Dictionary, 2nd edition; The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3rd edition). In Dr. A. T. Robertson’s Word Pictures in the New Testament, Vol. 1, p. 32, it states that “this wonderful panorama had to be partially mental and imaginative…”

Matthew 4:24  “…all Syria; and they brought to Him all who were ill, …”

It is unlikely that every single person from the entire land of Syria was brought to Jesus. Rather, this is a hyperbole, consisting of an exaggerated statement used to produce a strong impression, and not to be understood literally (The Oxford English Dictionary). Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 28 of their commentary, agree when they state, “they brought ‘many’ who were afflicted with a variety of illnesses…”

Matthew 5:34  “…make no oath at all, …”

Does this mean we should never call upon God to witness to the truth of what we are going to say or intend to do (e.g., as a witness in a court of law or in a marriage vow)? Both Jesus (Matt. 26:63-64) and Paul (2 Cor. 1:23) were involved in oaths. The context of Matthew 5:33-37 shows that what Jesus meant is that in every day life situations, a person’s word (e.g., “yes” and “no”) should be sufficient to mean what is true or intended without having to resort to oaths by supposedly less binding things in order to support one’s integrity. Drs. Walvoord and Zuck on page 31, Dr. Hendriksen on page 308, and Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown on page 902 of their respective commentaries agree.

Matthew 8:16  “…He cast out the spirits with a word, and healed all who were ill.”

Did Jesus heal everyone in the world who was ill or just everyone who was brought to Him at this time?  The context would make the latter the obvious meaning. Drs. Walvoord and Zuck on page 37 of their commentary agree.

Matthew 10:22  “And you will be hated by all on account of My name, …”

Would every single person in the whole world hate Jesus’ disciples?  No!  They were obviously loved, at least, by many fellow believers (e.g., Acts 1:13-14; 2:37-47; 3:6-11; 4:4, 32-37; 10:24-27, 44-48). As Dr. Hendriksen, on page 465, states, “the words ‘by all’ must not be taken literally as if referring to every man, woman, and child on earth, or even by all those reached by the gospel. We understand that this is hyperbole, a perfectly legitimate figure of speech. The expression must mean ‘by men in general’, regardless of rank, station, race, nationality, sex, or age.”

Matthew 13:32  “and this (a mustard seed) is smaller than all (other) seeds; …”

Are mustard seeds really smaller than all other seeds in the world?  No!  As Dr. Hendriksen on page 565 states, “Among seeds sown in a garden, it was generally the smallest.” Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown on page 927 of Commentary on the Whole Bible and Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible, Vol. 3, p. 110 both agree. Again, hyperbole is being used.

Or, as John Broadus, on page 296 of Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew, states, it was the popular language, and it was the intention of the speaker (Jesus) to communicate the fact that the mustard seed was “the smallest that His hearers were accustomed to sow”, or would be known as among the people of that day.

Matthew 17:11  “Elijah is coming and will restore all things.”

Would Elijah restore everything (i.e., people, places, material objects, covenants, etc.) that once existed?  No!  It’s a synecdoche, where a whole (“everything” or “all things” which will ultimately take place in the Millennium) is used for a part (i.e., “the hearts of the fathers to their children, and the hearts of the children to their fathers”). Jesus is referring to Malachi 4:5-6 where the restoration is of father to children and children to fathers, a spiritual restoration of families through John’s preaching of repentance and those families who so repented. Both Dr. Hendriksen on page 671 and Matthew Henry on page 141 of their respective commentaries agree.

Matthew 19:26  “with God all things are possible”

Is it possible for God to sin?  No!  Since God is infinitely holy and righteous, it’s impossible for Him to sin, like lying (Heb. 6:18). So “all”, at most here, means all things consistent with God’s nature/attributes (like obtaining salvation for mankind, which is impossible for man to obtain on his own).

Matthew 23:3  “all that they (the scribes and Pharisees) tell you, do and observe, …”

Were the people to do even the wrong things that the Pharisees’ taught, like that found in Matt. 15:3-6 and Matt. 16:12?  No!  As Dr. Hendriksen, on page 821, states, “Christ’s statement must not be interpreted absolutely, as if without any qualification…” “What Jesus meant was that whenever the scribes and Pharisees faithfully interpreted Moses, their instructions should be obeyed.” Drs. C. Pheiffer and E. Harrison, on page 970 of The Wycliffe Bible Commentary and Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 940 of their commentary, agree.

Matthew 28:20  “teaching them to observe all that I commanded you…”

Does this mean that Jesus’ disciples were to teach their disciples to obey such commands as found in Matt. 10:5-14; 14:16, 29; 16:20; 17:27; 21:2; Lk. 22:8, 36; 11:2-4?  Obviously not!  As Matthew Henry states, on page 257, the “all that I (Jesus) commended you” refers to “all moral duties” universal to all believers/Christians.

Or, as Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 94, state, “Those who respond are to be taught the truths Jesus had specifically communicated to the Eleven.” The “all” doesn’t apply to personal commands for unique situations that were only to be for His disciples at that time (as in the above passages listed).

Mk. 1:5  “And all the country of Judea was going out to him, and all the people of Jerusalem; and they were being baptized by him…”

Was every single man, woman, and child from Jerusalem and Judea coming to John and being baptized by him (including Pilate, Herod, the high priests, etc.)?  Obviously not!  As Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 104, state, “Using hyperbole, Mark showed the great impact John made…”  Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison on page 990 of their commentary, and Dr. Hendriksen on page 38 of New Testament Commentary – The Gospel of Mark, agree.

Lk. 1:6  “walking blamelessly in all the commandments and requirements of the Lord.”

Were Zacharias and Elizabeth sinless?  No!  Matthew Henry, on page 332, states that they were not sinless, but “living in such a way that no one could charge them with any open, scandalous sin”.  Dr. L. Morris, on page 68 of his Tyndale New Testament Commentaries – The Gospel According to St. Luke, says that they were “living faithfully for God, but not sinlessly”.

Dr. N. Geldenhuys, on page 62 of his The New International Commentary on the New Testament – The Gospel of Luke, states that they were “living a strictly religious and moral life… but weren’t sinless”. The word “all”, here, therefore is hyperbole, expressing how righteous they were.

Lk. 2:1  “a census be taken of all the inhabited earth.”

Did Caesar Augustus really take a census of every person on all 7 continents?  No!  As Dr. Hendriksen, on page 138 of his New Testament Commentary – The Gospel of Luke, states, Augustus ordered a census to be taken of “the populated world as far as it was ruled by Rome.” Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 991, agrees.

Or, as Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1032, state, “This means all the empire, not the entire known world”.

Lk. 2:10  “I bring you good news of a great joy which shall be for all the people;”

Does this mean for every single individual in the world?  No!  As Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 208, state, “These were specifically the people of Israel”. Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 992, Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1032, and Dr. Morris, on page 85 of their respective commentaries agree.

Or, as Dr. Hendriksen, on page 152, and Dr. Geldenhuys, on page 111 of their respective commentaries state, it refers to “all God’s people” or “every true member of the people of God”.

Lk. 9:10  “they (the 12 apostles) gave an account to Him of all that they had done.”

Does “all” include such things as going to the bathroom?  Hardly!  The “all” that they had done refers to the work/ministry for which they were sent out (Lk. 9:1-6), as Dr. Geldenhuys, on page 269, and Matthew Henry, on page 385, of their respective commentaries state.

Lk. 21:38  “And all the people would get up early in the morning to come to Him in the temple to listen to Him.”

Is this all the people of the world, of Israel, of Judea, of Jerusalem, or who? As Dr. Hendriksen, on page 945, states, it was the “people in Jerusalem”, as the context shows (Lk. 19:28, 45; 21:37).

Lk. 24:9  “and reported all these things to the eleven and to all the rest.”

Was it to all the rest of the world, of Israel, of Judea, of Jerusalem, of the Jews, of the disciples of Jesus, or who?  As Dr. Hendriksen, on page 1054, states, it was “as many of the other disciples of Jesus as they (these women) could reach.”

Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1068, agree, as does Dr. Morris, on page 334, where he states that “all the rest” refers to “the other followers of Jesus in the locality.”

Lk. 24:19  “who was a prophet mighty in deed and word in the sight of God and all the people, ”

Was it all the people of the world, of Israel and the neighboring countries, of just Israel, of the Jews, or who? As Matthew Henry, on page 483, states, it’s the people of “the country” or “His people (the Jews)”. It was the Jews in general because there were exceptions (Matt. 12:24; Jn. 8:48).

Jn. 3:26  “and all are coming to Him.”

Were all the people of the world, of Israel, of Judea, or who? As Dr. Hendriksen, on page 148 of his New Testament Commentary – The Gospel of John, states, “all” is a hyperbole, here.

Or, as Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1079, and Dr. Robertson, on page 55 his Vol. 5 Word Pictures in the New Testament, state that “all” refers to “crowds” of people.  A hyperbole, in other words.

Jn. 4:29  “Come, see a man who told me all the things that I have done;”

Did Jesus tell her every single thing she had ever done her whole life?  Obviously not!  As Dr. Robertson, on page 68, and Dr. M. Vincent, on page 429 of his Word Studies in the New Testament, Vol. 1, state, she “exaggerates” (hyperbole).

Jn. 4:45  “the Galileans received Him, having seen all the things that He did in Jerusalem at the feast…”

Had the Galileans really seen every single thing that Jesus had done day and night in public and private for that entire week-long feast in Jerusalem?  Hardly!  The “all” refers to Jesus’ miracles as Dr. Hendriksen, on page 179, states, “the Galileans welcomed Him because they had seen His miracles…”  Dr. Robertson, on page 74, Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1082, and Matthew Henry, on page 529, of their respective commentaries agree.  See Jn. 2:23 also.

Jn. 10:8  “All who came before Me are thieves and robbers; but the sheep did not hear them.”

Does “all” refer to all human beings from the time of Adam and Eve, or to all of whom?  Dr. Robertson, on page 176, states that it refers to “false Messiahs and self-appointed leaders who made havoc of the flock.”

Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 310, state that it refers to “those leaders who cared not for the spiritual good of the people but only for themselves.”

Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1049, state that it refers to “false prophets”.

Jn. 11:48  “all men will believe in Him…”

Does this mean every single person in the world?  No!  The chief priests and at least the majority of the Council did not believe in Jesus as the Messiah (Jn. 11:47), and the Romans wouldn’t, if they were going to take away the Jewish temple and nation. So, “all” must refer to the average or common Jew.

Jn. 14:26  “He will teach you all things…”

Did the Holy Spirit teach Jesus’ disciples every single thing in the realm of information or knowledge that existed (i.e., in science, math, geography, business, politics, music, history, art)?  No!  We know for sure that they weren’t taught the day and hour of Christ’s second coming (Matt. 24:36). Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 324, state that “the context limits the ‘all things’ to the interpretation and significance of His (Jesus’) person and work”.

Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1106, state that “these matters presumably would be based on the person and work of Christ…”

Or, as Matthew Henry, on page 647, states, “He shall teach them all things necessary for them either to learn themselves or to teach others”.

Jn. 16:13  “He will guide you into all the truth…”

Would the Holy Spirit guide Jesus’ disciples into all the truth about every single issue that exists in the universe?  Well, as Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 328, state, it refers to “the truth about Jesus and His work”.

Or, as Dr. Hendriksen, on page 328, states, “into the whole body of redemptive revelation”.

Or, as Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1110, state, “Not truth in every realm of knowledge, but truth in the things of God in the narrower sense, which we speak of as spiritual things”.

Or, as Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1063, state, “what is given Him to communicate” (whatever He hears – vs. 13).

Acts 2:17  “I will pour forth of My Spirit upon all mankind…”

Was the Holy Spirit poured upon every single person in the world at that time, as Peter would have to mean if he was taken literally (v. 16)?   Obviously not!  The Holy Spirit was only poured forth upon the 120 believers that met together in one place there at Pentecost (Acts 1:15; 2:1, 4, 15-16). So, what does “all mankind” mean?  As Dr. Vincent, on page 225, states, it means all kinds of believers, “without distinction of age, sex, or condition”.

The Holy Spirit wouldn’t be given primarily just to certain older, male, Jewish prophets, priests, judges, or kings, but now would be upon all God’s people, as Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1127, state.

This would include Gentile believers as part of God’s people, state Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown on page 1083, and Dr. F. F. Bruce, on page 68 of The New International Commentary on the New Testament – The Book of the Acts. This application would be by way of synecdoche, where the 120 believers (a part of the whole) are viewed as representing all believing mankind.

Acts 2:45  “and were sharing them with all, as anyone might have need.”

Were these believers sharing their finances with every person in need in Jerusalem, in Israel, in the world, or with whom?  As Dr. Bruce, on page 81, states, it was “among the members of the (new believing) community” living in the area of Jerusalem. Matthew Henry, on page 734, and Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1129, of their respective commentaries agree.

Acts 2:47  “praising God, and having favor with all the people.”

Was it all the people of the world, of Israel, of Jerusalem, of believers, or non-believers? As Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1129, state, it was the Jews who had rejected Jesus as Messiah, but who observed these new believers’ lovely demeanor. Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1084, agree.

Or, as Matthew Henry, on page 734, states, it was the non-believing common people who were spectators there.

Acts 3:11  “all the people ran together to them…”

Who are all the people, here?  According to Dr. Bruce, on page 87, they were “the crowd of wondering spectators”, eyewitnesses to the miracle who were in and around the temple in Jerusalem. Drs. Pheiffer, on page 1129, and Matthew Henry, on page 736, of their respective commentaries agree.

Acts 4:34  “for all who were owners of land or houses would sell them…”

The “all” refers to the congregation of those who believed (Acts 4:32). Dr. Bruce, on page 108, Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 364, and Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1132 of their respective commentaries agree.

Acts 13:10  “You who are full of all deceit and fraud…”

Was Elymas abounding in every single deceit and fraud possible?  No!  As Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 388, state, Elymas was into “all kinds of” deception …and distortion of the truth”. This is different from every single act of deceit possible.

Acts 13:22  “a man after My heart, who will do all My will.”

Did David do God’s will by committing adultery and murder (2 Sam. 11:4-5, 15)? As Dr. Robertson, on page 189, states, “the commendation of David is not absolute, but as compared with the disobedient Saul, he was a man who did God’s will in spite of the gross sin of which he repented”.  David did all God’s purpose (Acts 13:36).

Acts 13:39  “everyone who believes is freed from all things…”

Does this mean a believer is freed from all his responsibilities to family and government here in this life?  No!  As Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1103, state, it’s from “all charges of the law”. That is, from all sin committed.

As Matthew Henry, on page 815, states, it’s “from all the guilt and stain of sin”.

Acts 17:21  “Now all the Athenians and the strangers visiting there used to spend their time in nothing other than telling or hearing something new.”

Does this mean every 2 and 3 year old kid did this too?  Obviously not!  As Dr. Vincent, on page 264, states, it refers to the “people collectively”. Not inclusively! A type of hyperbole or synecdoche.

Acts 19:27  “she whom all of Asia and the world worship…”

Did every single person in all of Asia and the world worship Artemis/Diana?   No!  This is hyperbole, meaning that a lot of people worshiped her in many cities, and especially those in Asia but not every single person. Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 411, and Dr. Robertson, on page 325, of their respective commentaries agree.

Acts 21:28  “This is the man who preaches to all men everywhere…”

Had Paul preached to every single person in every single place in the world?  No!  This is hyperbole, as Matthew Henry, on page 879, says in so many words.

Acts 22:15  “For you will be a witness for Him to all men of what you have seen and heard.”

Did Paul ever do this to every single person in the world?  No!  Rather, it means to “all” kinds of people, both Jews and Gentiles, as Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 418, Dr. Vincent, on page 279, and Matthew Henry, on page 884, of their respective commentaries explain.

Acts 24:5  “a fellow who stirs up dissension among all the Jews throughout the world…”

Had Paul really done this to every single Jew?  No!  Hyperbole, again. Paul hadn’t even been throughout the world, let alone talked to every Jew in order to stir them up, as Acts 28:16-21 shows. Dr. Bruce, on page 464, agrees.

Acts 25:24  “behold this man about whom all the people of the Jews appealed to me, both at Jerusalem and here, …”

Had every single Jew (man, woman, and child) appealed to Festus?  Hardly!  As Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1171, state, it refers to “the Jewish leaders” in these 2 cities.

Acts 26:4  “all Jews know my manner of life from my youth up…”

Did every single Jew in the world (man, woman, and child) know Paul, let alone his manner of life from his youth up?  Hardly!  As Dr. Bruce, on page 489, states, it refers to “his contemporaries”. That is, the Jews in general living in Jerusalem during the same time period as Paul (Acts 22:3), as Matthew Henry infers, on page 905 of his commentary.

Rom. 1:29  “being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, malice, …”

Was and is mankind, apart from God, controlled by every single sin/evil there is? No! But he is controlled by every kind or form “of unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, malice, as Dr. J. Murray states, on page 50 of The New International Commentary of the New Testament – The Epistle to the Romans, and as Dr. Hendriksen says, on page 80 of his New Testament Commentary – Romans. For example, man will envy one or more people, but he doesn’t necessarily envy every single person in the world.

Rom. 3:23  “for all have sinned…”

Does this include Jesus of Nazareth?  Obviously not!  The “all” refers to both Jews and Gentiles (Rom. 3:9) who are only human and not Divine as well, as Jesus was both man and God in one (Col. 2:9; 1 Pet. 2:22; 1 Jn. 3:5).

Rom. 5:18  “through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of life to all men.”

Did Jesus’ death on the cross (Rom.5:8-9) result in every single person in the world being declared righteous before God, thus granting every person in the world eternal life in heaven?  Obviously not!, as the following show: Jn. 3:18, 36; 2 Thes. 1:8-9; Matt. 25:31-33, 41, 46; Rev. 20:11-15.  The “all men” refers to “all those who are Christ’s” (1 Cor. 15:22-23), “those who belong to Him”, as Dr. Hendriksen states, on pages 182, 183; as Dr. Murray states, on page 203; and as Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown state, on page 1152 of their respective commentaries. Also, see Jn. 10:11, 15, 23; Eph. 5:25; 1:1, 4-7.

Rom. 6:10  “He died to sin, once for all…”

Does this mean for every single person in the world?  No!  It means for all time, never to die again (Heb. 7:27) – Dr. Hendriksen, on page 200, and Dr. Murray, on page 224 of their respective commentaries.

Rom. 8:32  “delivered Him up for us all…”

The “us all” refers to “saints” (Rom. 1:7) or believers, and not every single person inclusively in the world. See note on Rom. 5:18 above.

Rom. 8:32  “how will He not also with Him freely give us all things?”

What are the “all things”?  Dr. Murray, on page 326, states that it refers to “the gifts and blessings of grace upon believers”, “salvation in its whole expanse”. It’s “an expression in universal terms used in a restrictive sense”.

Or, as Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 474, state, “all other things pertaining to and leading to their ultimate sanctification (2 Pet. 1:3)”.

Or, as Matthew Henry, on page 967, states, “all things that He sees to be needful and necessary for us”.

Rom. 11:32  “that He might show mercy to all.”

The “all” refers to both Jews and Gentiles as two races or categories of people, and not that every single Gentile will receive salvation mercy. Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1173; Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1219; and Dr. Robertson, on page 400 of his Word Pictures in the New Testament, Vol. 4, all agree.

Dr. Hendriksen, on page 385 of his commentary, says that “all” refers to the full number of Gentiles to be saved (Rom. 11:25) and all Israel living at Christ’s second coming (Rom. 11:26).

Rom. 11:36  “For from Him and through Him and to Him are all things.”

Dr. Murray, on page 108, states that “all” refers to “all that comes within the created and providential order”. Dr. Robertson, on page 401, states that it refers to “the universe with all the phenomena concerning creation, redemption, and providence…” Dr. Hendriksen, on page 388, states that “all things” refers to everything related to man’s salvation. Matthew Henry, on page 984, states that it especially refers to this also.

Rom. 14:2  “One man has faith that he may eat all things…”

Does “all things” include rocks and dirt?  Obviously not!  The contrast is between all kinds of food, including meat verses vegetables only (Rom. 14:2, 21). Dr. Murray, on page 175; Dr. Hendriksen, on page 456; Dr. Robertson, on page 412; Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 492; and Matthew Henry, on page 995 of their respective commentaries all agree.

Rom. 14:20  “All things indeed are clean…”

Does this include tools, homes, dishes, boats, clothes, etc.?  No!  This is talking about food and possibly certain drinks (Rom. 14:14-17, 21; Mk. 7:19; 1 Tim. 4:4). “Clean”, here, means intrinsically or ceremonially pure or undefiled. Dr. Murray, on page 188 and 195; Dr. Hendriksen, on page 466; Dr. Robertson, on pages 414, 415; Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 494; and Matthew Henry on page 1000 of their respective commentaries all agree.

Rom. 15:13  “Now may the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing…”

Does this mean every single possible experience of joy and peace that there is?  No!  As Matthew Henry, on page 1004, states, it refers to “all sorts of true joy and peace”.

Rom. 15:14  “filled with all knowledge…”

Were these Christians at Rome omniscient?  Obviously not!  Dr. Murray, on page 209, states that it refers to a mature understanding of the Christian faith. Dr. Hendriksen, on page 484, states that it refers to “every kind” of practical discernment in dealing with the admonishing of fellow believers’ faults.

Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 496, state that the “all knowledge” is not in the absolute sense, “but in the sense that they had an understanding of the full scope of Christian truth.” Dr. Robertson, on page 419, agrees.

Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1180, say that it refers to the truths just expounded by Paul.

Rom. 16:19  “For the report of your obedience has reached to all…”

Does this mean to all the world, to all the churches in the world, or what? Dr. Murray, on page 236, says that it refers “to all the churches”.

Or, to “believers everywhere”, as Dr. Hendriksen states, on page 511 of his commentary.

1 Cor. 1:5  “that in everything you were enriched in Him, in all speech and all knowledge.”

Were they enriched in every single thing they spoke and knew?  Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 508, state that it refers to the speaking and knowledge gifts such as tongues, prophecy, teaching, discernment of spirits, interpretation of tongues, etc., “every kind and degree of religious knowledge” as Dr. C. Hodge puts it, on page 12 of 1st and 2nd Corinthians and Ephesians, and as Dr. Robertson, on page 70, and Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1230 of their respective commentaries agree.

1 Cor. 2:15  “But he who is spiritual appraises all things…”

Can a spiritual person accurately evaluate or judge the weight a bridge can hold or how high a building can be constructed without having any training in these areas?  No, not unless God specifically revealed such information to such a person, but that’s not what this verse says. Rather, “all things” refers to that which is in addition to common sense, namely spiritual truth or that which the Spirit reveals. Dr. Hodge agrees, on page 33, as do Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 510, and Matthew Henry, on page 1020 of their respective commentaries

1 Cor. 6:12  “All things are lawful for me, but not all things are profitable.”

Does this include sin?  No!  As Dr. Hodge, on page 64, states, it refers to the restrictions under the Jewish ceremonial laws, like avoiding unclean things, or to indifferent things, but not to immoral things. Dr. Robertson, on page 120, and Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1199 of their respective commentaries agree.

1 Cor. 7:7  “Yet I wish that all men were even as I myself am.”

The “all men” refers to Christian people, as Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 518, state.

1 Cor. 8:6  “one God, the Father, from whom are all things…”

Is direct temptation of believers to sin from God?  No!  See James 1:13. The “all things” refers to all of God’s creations, as Dr. Hodge, on page 86; Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1242; and Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown of their respective commentaries state.

1 Cor. 9:12  “but we endure all things…”

Did they endure every possible thing that could take place? As Dr. Hodge, on page 94, states, they “endured all kinds of privations”. But that’s different from every single possible thing.  Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1205, agrees.

1 Cor. 9:19  “I have made myself a slave to all…”

Was Paul a slave to every single person in the world?  Obviously not!  As Matthew Henry, on page 1041, states, “He (Paul) accommodated himself to all sorts of people” as seen in 1 Cor. 9:20-22. “All sorts” and “everyone inclusively” are two different things.

1 Cor. 9:22  “I have become all things to all men…”

Did Paul become a Hindu, Buddhist, thief, liar, immoral person to every Hindu, Buddhist, thief, liar, and immoral person he met or tried to reach?  Obviously not!  As Dr. Hodge, on page 98, states, “It was not to this or that class of men that he was thus conciliatory, but to all classes, and as to all matters of indifference. Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 524, of their commentary, agree.

Paul adapted to all kinds of customs and scruples that were amoral. Dr. L. Morris, on page 138 of his Tyndale New Testament Commentaries – The First Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians, says, “This does not, of course, mean that his conduct was unprincipled. But where no principle was at stake, he was prepared to go to extreme lengths to meet people.” Dr. Robertson, on page 148, agrees.

1 Cor. 9:22  “that I may by all means save some.”

Does this mean that Paul was willing to lie or deceive people in order to convert them?  No!  As Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1206, state, Paul “conformed himself to the feelings of each in the several classes” to win some converts.

It refers to all legitimate means; Paul wouldn’t sin in order to convert someone, as Matthew Henry states on page 1041. Paul adapted to people in amoral issues in order to reach them for Christ.

1 Cor. 10:23  “All things are lawful, but not all things are profitable.”

See notes under 1 Cor. 6:12.

1 Cor. 10:33  “just as I please all men in all things…”

Did Paul really please every single person in the world in every single issue/area/thing?  No!  Even he said he didn’t in Gal. 1:10.

As Dr. Hodge, on page 117, states, “all things” refers to “all things allowable.” Not in sinful things, but in all kinds of indifferent or amoral things. Matthew Henry, on page 1046, agrees.

1 Cor. 11:12  “all things originate from God.”

Did sin originate or have its source from/out of God?  Not directly!  The “all things”, in context, refers to man and woman. Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 529; Dr. Hodge, on page 122; and Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1247, of their respective commentaries agree.

1 Cor. 12:6  “God who works all things in all (persons).”

Does God work every single thing, including sin, in every single person of the world?  No!  As Dr. Hodge, on page 138, states, God “works all these effects (of the spiritual gifts exercised upon or to people) in the minds of men.”

Or, as Dr. Robertson, on page 168, says, the “all things” refers to the “results as a whole” from the use of believers’ spiritual gifts.

Dr. Vincent, on page 791, agrees, as do Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1215 of their respective commentaries. “In all” refers to the recipients upon whom the effects of the spiritual gifts are granted by God.

1 Cor. 13:7  “believes all things…”

Does love believe every single thing?  No!  Though we are told to love everyone (Matt. 5:44 and Rom. 13:8-9), we are also told to not believe everyone (Prov. 26:25; 14:15). As Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1252; Dr. Robertson, on page 178; and Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1217, of their respective commentaries state, love is “not gullible”, but it’s not suspicious either, without cause.

1 Cor. 14:31  “For you can all prophesy one by one…”

Did everyone have the gift of prophecy?  No!, not according to 1 Cor. 12:29. The “all” refers to all those who had the gift of prophecy. Dr. Hodge, on page 169; Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 540; and Dr. Morris, on page 200, of their respective commentaries agree.

1 Cor. 14:40  “But let all things be done properly and in an orderly manner.”

Does this mean everything inclusively that anyone does anywhere?  No!  In context, it refers to all things in their “worship” service, as Dr. Hodge, on page 172; Dr. Robertson, on page 185; Dr. Morris, on page 203; Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 541; and Matthew Henry, on page 1060, of their respective commentaries agree.

1 Cor. 15:22  “in Christ all shall be made alive.”

“All” refers to all believers, those who are Christ’s. See note under Rom. 5:18.

1 Cor. 15:27  “For He has put all things in subjection under His feet.”

Does this include God the Father being put under Jesus’ feet?  No!, as the end of 1 Cor. 15:27 states that “it is evident that He (God the Father, 1 Cor. 15:24) is excepted who put all things in subjection to Him (Christ).” Dr. Hodge, on page 185; Dr. Robertson, on page 192; and Dr. Morris, on page 217, of their respective commentaries agree.

1 Cor. 16:20  “All the brethren greet you.”

Does this mean every single believer inclusively in the world?  No!  It refers to the brethren in Ephesus, where Paul is writing from, apart from those in Aquila’s house, as Dr. Hodge, on page 206, and Matthew Henry, on page 1071, of their respective commentaries agree.

2 Cor. 3:2  “You are our letter …known and read by all men;”

Were these Corinthian believers known and read by every single person in the world?  Hardly!  This is a hyperbole, meaning that they were Paul’s “public” authentication of his ministry – Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, page 1267.

2 Cor. 4:15  “For all things are for your sakes, …”

Was every single thing in the universe for them?  Not in this context!  Instead, it’s limited to all the things Paul had been speaking about, such as his suffering, constancy, and deliverance (2 Cor. 4:8-14), as Dr. Hodge, on page 259; Dr. P. Hughes, on page 151 of The New International Commentary on the New Testament – Commentary on the Second Epistle to the Corinthians; Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 564; Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1238; and Matthew Henry, on page 1080, all agree.

2 Cor. 5:14  “one died for all, therefore all died;”

Dr. Hodge, on page 278, states that “all” in both phrases refers to “all the subjects of redemption”, all God’s/Christ’s people, all believers, and not to every single human and/or angel inclusively in the world or universe. When Christ died, all Christ’s people died with Him at the point at which they believed on Him as Savior (Rom. 6:8; Gal. 2:20; 2 Tim. 2:11). The “all died” refers to the same people as the “died for all” people, namely believers, Christ’s people, Christ’s sheep (Jn. 10:11, 15).

Dr. Hughes, on page 195, and Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1271, of their respective commentaries agree that “all” refers to believers.

2 Cor. 5:15  “and He died for all…”

Same meaning as above.

2 Cor. 5:18  “Now all (these) things are from God…”

In context, this is not referring to everything inclusively in the universe, including sin, as proceeding from God; rather it’s referring to the entire change discussed in 2 Cor. 5:15-17, the new creation, as Dr. Hodge, on page 281; Dr. Hughes, on page 204; Dr. Vincent, on page 824; Drs. Walvoord, on page 568; and Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1241, of their respective commentaries agree.

2 Cor. 8:7  “you abound in …all earnestness…”

Here, the “all” means “every kind of” rather than “all inclusively”, as Dr. Hughes states on page 296 of his commentary.

2 Cor. 9:13  “the liberality of your contribution to them and to all,”

As Dr. Hodge, on page 326; Dr. Hughes, on page 340; and Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1277, of their respective commentaries state, “all” refers to all believers, that is, all believers who they gave to. It doesn’t mean everyone in the world inclusively.

2 Cor. 11:6  “in every way we have made this evident to you in all things.”

Dr. Hughes, on page 382; Dr. Vincent, on page 258; and Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1278, of their respective commentaries, state that “in all things” means “among all men” or “publicly”.

Dr. Hodge, on the other hand, on page 342, states that it means “in all things pertaining to the apostolic office.” In either interpretation, inclusiveness is omitted so that it’s used in a restrictive sense.

2 Cor. 13:13  “All the saints greet you.”

Every believer in the world?  Hardly!  As Dr. Hodge, on page 371; Dr. Hughes, on page 488; and Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 585, state, “all” refers to all the believers in Macedonia, from where Paul is writing this letter.

Gal. 2:14  “I said to Cephas in the presence of all,”

The “all”, in context, refers to all the believers in Antioch (Gal. 2:11) who happened to be present at this occasion; not everyone in the world.

Gal. 6:6  “share all good things with him who teaches.”

As Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1276, state, “all” refers to “every kind of”. It’s not referring to every single good thing inclusively, necessarily.

Gal. 6:10  “let us do good to all men…”

As Dr. Hendriksen, on page 238 of his New Testament Commentary – Galatians, states, “all” refers to “everybody regardless of race, nationality, class, religion, sex, or anything else” when an occasion presents itself and we have the opportunity to do good. It’s really impossible for us to do good to everyone inclusively in the whole world. It includes doing good only to the extent that we are “capable” and to the extent that others have “need of us” – Matthew Henry, page 1117.

Eph. 3:9  “God, who created all things;”

Did God create sin?  No!  “All”, in context, refers to the universe, as Dr. Hodge states on page 60 of Ephesians, and as Drs. Walvoord and Zuck state on page 630 of their commentary.

Both the material and spiritual things in it, state Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, page 1287; Matthew Henry, page 1127; and Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, page 1308.

Eph. 3:19  “that you may be filled up with all the fullness of God.”

Does this mean we will become God?  No!  “All” refers to all of God’s communicable attributes and not His incommunicable attributes, as His being all-powerful, sovereign, infinite – Dr. Hendriksen, page 174 of New Testament Commentary – Ephesians. It’s a goal that Paul prays for these believers (Eph. 3:14-19).

Eph. 4:15  “we are to grow up in all (aspects) into Him …Christ,”

Again, the “all” refers to Christ’s communicable attributes, like His love, etc. – Matthew Henry, page 1131.

Eph. 5:13  “But all things become visible when they are exposed by the light, ”

Does “all things” include electrons, protons, and neutrons?  No!  In context, it’s talking about “wicked practices” or “secret sins” exposed by believers/light (Eph. 5:8, 11). Dr. Hendriksen, page 234; Dr. Vincent, page 863; Dr. Robertson, page 543; Dr. Hodge, page 102; and Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 639, of their respective commentaries.

Phil. 2:14  “Do all things without grumbling or disputing.”

As Dr. Hendriksen on page 124 of his New Testament Commentary – Philippians states, “all things” refers to “all the dictates of God’s will.”

Or, as Matthew Henry says on page 1148 of his commentary, “all things” refers to “God’s commands.” Dr. Jac Muller on page 93 of The New International Commentary on the N.T. – The Epistles of Paul to the Philippians, agrees.

Phil. 2:21  “For they all seek after their own interests, not those of Christ Jesus.”

Does the “they all” refer to all non-Christians, all Christians, all Paul’s disciples, or whom?  The context, would imply that it refers to all those Paul had at his disposal, of those who would naturally be selected for such an assignment, except for Timothy – Dr. Vincent, page 883; Dr. Hendriksen, page 135; Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 657; Dr. Muller, page 98; Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, page 1326; and Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, page 1307, of their respective commentaries.

Phil. 2:29  “Therefore receive him in the Lord with all joy, ”

“All joy” is a hyperbole, meaning “a most joyful welcome” – Dr. Hendriksen, page 143, or “heartfelt joy” – Dr. Muller, page 102.

Phil. 4:5  “Let your forbearing (spirit) be known to all men.”

Is it our responsibility to make sure everyone in the world knows this about us?  Hardly?  It’s referring to every one we interact with, who sees us, whether Christian or not – Dr. Hendriksen, page 193, and Matthew Henry, page 1154 of their respective commentaries.

Phil. 4:13  “I can do all things through Him who strengthens me.”

In context (Phil. 4:11-12), Paul is saying that through the strength Christ gives him, he can “meet any circumstance of life which may arise.” Paul could adapt to poverty, hunger, abundance, etc. – Dr. Muller, page 147. It’s not dealing with Samson-like feats of strength.

Phil. 4:22  “All the saints greet you, ”

“All” refers to all the believers in Rome from where Paul is writing this letter – Dr. Muller, page 154; Dr. Hendriksen, page 211; and Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 665, of their respective commentaries.

Col. 1:6  “which has come to you, just as in all the world also…”

Did the gospel really go into every single part of the world by this time?  Hardly!  Rather, it refers to the “leading parts of the then known world”, as Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1314, states.

Dr. Vincent calls it hyperbole, on page 895, as do Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 670, and Dr. Robertson, on page 474, of their respective commentaries. Dr. Robertson adds that it refers to the Roman Empire.

Col. 1:16  “For by Him all things were created, ”

Does this include cars, computers, and sin?  No!, not in a direct sense. “All” refers to the entire universe of material and immaterial things, people, or angels, as the rest of the verse explains – Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 673; Dr. Robertson, page 478; and Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, page 1316, of their respective commentaries. It’s referring to God’s original creating fiats, and excludes those things which humans and/or angels do, make, or engineer.

Col. 1:19  “for all the fulness to dwell in Him.”

All the fulness of what? Everything material?  No!  It’s referring to “the sum-total of the divine powers and attributes” (Col. 2:9), as Dr. Vincent, on page 899; Dr. Hendriksen, on page 79 of his New Testament Commentary – Colossians; Dr. Robertson, on page 480; Dr. J. Lightfoot, on page 159 of St. Paul’s Epistles to the Colossians; Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, on page 1339; Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 674; and Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1317, of their respective commentaries agree.

Col. 1:20  “and through Him to reconcile all things to Himself, ”

Does this include demons and the eternally lost in hell?  No!  As Dr. K. Wuest, on page 188 of Wuest’s Word Studies in the Greek New Testament, Vol. 1, “Colossians”, states, “all” includes “the material universe” (Rom. 8:19-22) and “the believing sinner”, but not “the lost in eternity”.

Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 674, agree that “all things” has this limited meaning. Also, note that the last part of Col. 1:20 does not include things/those “under the earth” (Phil. 2:10), the condemned.

Col. 1:23  “the gospel that you have heard, which was proclaimed in all creation under heaven…”

Was it, literally?  See note under Col. 1:6. Again, it’s hyperbole, here – Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 675; Dr. Robertson, page 483; and Dr. Hendriksen, page 85, of their respective commentaries.

Col. 1:28  “admonishing every man and teaching every man with all wisdom…”

Were Paul and Timothy all-wise?  No!  “All”, here, means “in every kind or form of”, as Dr. Wuest, page 194, and Dr. Vincent, page 903, state in their respective commentaries.

Col. 2:1  “and for all those who have not personally seen my face.”

Does Paul mean every person in the world, every Christian in the world, or what?  The context implies that it’s the churches of the Lycus Valley (e.g., Colossae, Laodicea, and Hierapolis – Col. 4:13) – Dr. Hendriksen, page 102; Dr. Robertson, page 487; Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 676; and Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, page 1319, of their respective commentaries.

Col. 3:11  “Christ is all, and in all.”

Is this saying that Christ is all people and things, similar to pantheism, and that He is in all things?  No!  Paul, in context, is saying that Christ “is all that matters” and “indwells all believers”, as Dr. Hendriksen, page 154, and Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, page 1325, state.

Col. 3:16  “with all wisdom teaching and admonishing one another…”

See the note under Col. 1:28.

Col. 3:20  “Children, be obedient to your parents in all things, ”

Does this include committing sin if parents tell their children to do so?  No!  The “all things” is limited to lawful commands which do not violate the rest of God’s Word and will, similarly to Acts 5:29 – Dr. Hendriksen, page 171; Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, page 1344; and Matthew Henry, page 1167, of their respective commentaries.

Col. 3:22  “Slaves, in all things obey those who are your masters on earth, ”

Same as the note under Col. 3:20.

1 Thes. 2:15  “They are not pleasing to God, but hostile to all men, ”

“All men”, in the context of 1 Thes. 2:16, refers to the Gentiles – Dr. Robertson, page 22; Dr. D. Hiebert, page 117 of The Thessalonian Epistles; and Drs. Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown, page 1333 of their respective commentaries.

1 Thes. 5:27  “have this letter read to all the brethren.”

Every Christian in the world?  No!, but to all the believers at the church in Thessalonica (1 Thes. 1:1), as Dr. Robertson, page 39; Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 710; and Dr. Hiebert, page 258, state.

2 Thes. 2:9  “with all power and signs and false wonders, ”

“All”, here, means “every kind of” or “all kinds of” or “supernatural”, rather than absolute, infinite power since Satan is not all-powerful, like God – Dr. Hiebert, page 317; Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 720; and Dr. Vincent, page 954.

2 Thes. 2:10  “and with all the deception of wickedness…”

Every single deception there is? Hardly!, but “every kind of” deceit – Dr. Hiebert, p. 317.

1 Tim. 2:1  “prayers …be made on behalf of all men, ”

Does this mean we should pray for every single person in the entire world individually?  No!, it would be impossible! The context implies that the “all men” means various categories or classes or groups of people, without distinction of race, nationality, or social position, such as: kings (1 Tim. 2:2), those in positions of authority (1 Tim. 2:2), Gentiles (1 Tim. 2:7), etc., “all kinds of” people – Dr. Hendriksen, on pages 93, 94 of his New Testament Commentary – 1st and 2nd Timothy and Titus, and Dr. Robertson, p. 567 agree.

1 Tim. 2:2  “for kings and all who are in authority, ”

Again, the “all” wouldn’t mean everyone around the whole world because (especially at the time of this writing) doing so wouldn’t affect the reason Paul tells these Christians to pray for this, that being, in order for these Christians to live a tranquil and quiet life. Rather, the “all” refers to anyone in authority over them who could affect these believers’ peaceful lifestyle and easy spread of the gospel (1 Tim. 2:4).

1 Tim. 2:4  “who desires all men to be saved and come to the knowledge of the truth.”

Does God want every single person in the world saved?  No!  If He did, then He would do it (Isa. 46:10; 14:24; Psa. 33:11; Rom. 9:19; Dan. 4:35). Again, “all” doesn’t refer to every single person in the world, but to people from “all kinds of” or “categories of” groups “without distinction of rank, race, or nationality” – Dr. Hendriksen, page 95. The same idea is found in 2 Pet. 3:9, where it’s very clear that the people the Lord wishes to be saved or come to repentance are those God meant to become believers, which are His chosen/elect/predestined ones, as the context shows (2 Pet. 3:8; 1:1; and 2 Pet. 3:1 with 1 Pet. 1:1-2).

1 Tim. 2:6  “who gave Himself as a ransom for all,”

Did Christ die to ransom every single person in the world?  No!  Christ died only to ransom His sheep/chosen/elect/predestined ones (Jn. 10:11, 15, 26). “The design of the atonement is definitely restricted” to His sheep – Dr. Robertson on page 111 of his New Testament Commentary – The Gospel of John, vol. 2; Dr. L. Berkhof on pages 394-399 of Systematic Theology ; and Dr. A. Hodge on pages 347- 429 of The Atonement.

1 Tim. 4:10  “God, who is the Savior of all men, especially of believers.”

Does this mean that everyone in the world is going to be spiritually and eternally saved and go to heaven?  No!, since other Bible passages teach otherwise (e.g., 2 Thes. 1:8-9; Rev. 20:11-15).

God is the Savior/Deliverer of all people in general (not every single person) in a physical sense, in that He delivers many people from physical harm or privation (e.g., Ex. 18:4, 8; Judges 8:34; Jer. 20:13; Dan. 6:27; I Sam. 17:37; Isa. 63:8-10; Psa. 36:6; 145:9, 14-16; Jonah 4:11; Matt. 5:45; Lk. 6:35). But God is the Savior of believers in a special sense, that being, spiritually unto eternal life (Titus 3:4-7) – Dr. Hendriksen, pages 154-156; and Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, page 1376.

1 Tim. 4:15  “so that your progress may be evident to all.”

Everyone in the entire world?  No!, but to all Timothy’s observers (Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 741), especially those in his church – Dr. Hendriksen, page 160.

1 Tim. 5:20  “rebuke in the presence of all,”

All the world?  No!, rather in the presence of all the believers in this elder’s church – Dr. Hendriksen, page 183; Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 744; Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, page 1367 of their respective commentaries.

1 Tim. 6:10  “For the love of money is the root of all (sorts of) evil,”

Not “all” evil (every single evil there is), as the King James Version translates the Greek word “panton”, but “all sorts/kinds of” evil, as it can have that meaning as well – Dr. Hendriksen, page 200; Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 746; and Dr. Robertson, page 593 of their respective commentaries.

1 Tim. 6:17  “God, who richly supplies us with all things to enjoy.”

Had God richly supplied Paul and Timothy with every single thing in the world to enjoy? Not according to 1 Cor. 4:11 and 2 Cor. 11:27. A form of the same Greek word is used here as is used in 1 Tim. 6:10 above (“panta”), and should have the same meaning as there, “all kinds of”.

2 Tim. 1:15  “all who are in Asia turned away from me…”

Does “all” mean “every person”, “every Christian”, “every Christian leader”, “every traveling companion”, or what? Most probably, it means “every Christian leader of some sort” – Dr. Hendriksen, page 238, and Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 751 of their commentaries.

Or, it could mean “all who are now in Asia, but who were in Rome” with Paul at the time of this incident – Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, page 1376.

2 Tim. 3:9  “for their folly will be obvious to all…”

To every single person in the world?  No! In context, it’s referring to “all of God’s true children” (Dr. Hendriksen, page 289) who observe these religious errorists (Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 756).

2 Tim. 4:16  “but all deserted me;”

As Drs. Walvoord and Zuck on page 759 and Matthew Henry on page 1218 of their respective commentaries state, “all” refers to the Christians at Rome.

2 Tim. 4:17  “that all the Gentiles might hear;”

Not every single Gentile in the entire world, but those in Rome – Dr. Wuest, page 169 and Dr. Vincent, page 1072 of their respective commentaries.

Or, as Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown on page 1383, and Matthew Henry on page 1219 of their respective commentaries state, it possibly refers to those at Paul’s trial there in Rome.

2 Tim. 4:21  “and all the brethren.”

Drs. Walvoord and Zuck on page 760 state that “all” refers to the Christians in Rome.

Titus 1:15  “To the pure, all things are pure;”

Does this include pornography?  No!  Dr. Hendriksen, on page 356, states that “all things” refers to “everything that was created by God for consumption as food” (1 Tim. 5:3-5; Acts 10:15; Mk. 7:15, 18-19). Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 763; Dr. Vincent, page 1076; Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, page 1394; and Matthew Henry, page 1224 of their respective commentaries.

Titus 2:11  “bringing salvation to all men, ”

To every single individual in the entire world?  No!  “All”, here, refers to all classes or various groups of people, regardless of age, sex, or social standing – Dr. Hendriksen, page 371, and Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, page 1387 of their respective commentaries.

Titus 3:2  “showing every consideration for all men.”

“All men” refers to the people they met or interacted with rather than to every person in the world whom they knew nothing about. Drs. Walvoord and Zuck agree when they say, on page 766, that, it refers to “people in the community”.

Philemon 1:5  “love…toward all the saints;”

As Dr. J. Muller, on page 177 of The New International Commentary on the New Testament – The Epistle of Paul to the Philippians and Philemon, states, the love is “toward our neighbors”. It’s the believers we meet, know about, or interact with rather than those who we know nothing about.

Heb. 2:17  “Therefore, He had to be made like His brethren in all things, ”

Does this include being born with a sin nature or in sin (Psa. 51:5)?  No!  As Dr. H. Kent, on page 61 of The Epistle to the Hebrews; Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown on page 1402; and Dr. Robertson, on page 350 of his Word Pictures in the New Testament, Vol. 5, state, Jesus became a man in all respects (apart from sin, being born in sin – 1 Jn. 3:5, or yielding to it – Heb. 4:15).

Heb. 3:4  “but the builder of all things is God.”

Does God build cars, airplanes, etc. ?  Not directly!  “All things” refers to Creation (Heb. 1:2, 10) – Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 786.

Heb. 4:4  “And God rested on the seventh day from all His works.”

Did God stop all activity completely, including that of holding all the universe together once it was created (Heb. 1:3; Col. 1:17)?  No!  As Dr. Kent, on pages 81, 82, states, God’s “creative works were finished, and there has been no resumption of such work that would terminate God’s rest.” It does not mean the “cessation of all activity”, however, only of His creation works – Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 788.

Heb. 4:15  “one who has been tempted in all things as (we are, yet) without sin.”

Was Jesus tempted in every single thing, like stealing bread, drink, clothes, tools, animals, furniture, kitchenware, transportation equipment, writing utensils, scrolls, money, personal items, etc.  Hardly!  Rather, He was tempted in all “respects” or kinds of things or areas – Dr. Kent, page 92.

Heb. 7:2  “to whom Abraham apportioned a tenth part of all, ”

“All” Abraham owned, had access to, or what? “All” refers, here, to “all his spoils of war” – Dr. Kent, page 124; Dr. Robertson, page 380; Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, page 1413; Matthew Henry, page 1257; and Dr. Wuest, page 126 of Wuest’s Word Studies of the Greek New Testament, Vol. 2, “Hebrews”.

Heb. 7:27  “once for all…”

“Once for all people”, “once for all sins”, or “once for all time”?  As Dr. Kent states, on page 144, the Greek word “ephapax” means “once for all” time, never to be repeated, as the high priests had to offer sacrifices repeatedly. Dr. Wuest on page 139, and Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 799 agree.

Heb. 9:12  “He entered the holy place once for all, ”

It means the same as that in Heb. 7:27, “once for all time” – Dr. Kent, page 171.

Heb. 9:19  “For when every commandment had been spoken by Moses to all the people…”

All the people of the world?  No!, but to all the people of Israel – Dr. Kent, page 175.

Heb. 9:19  “and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, ”

“All” is a synecdoche, where a whole represents a part of the people, as it isn’t logical that Moses would have enough blood to go around to sprinkle nearly 2 million people if he used half of it on the altar (Ex. 24:58) and the other half on the people. Also, if he did have enough blood to sprinkle on that many people, then the other half of the blood would have flooded the altar and the area around it because there would have been so much blood, which also wouldn’t be logical. Also, Ex. 24:8 doesn’t use the word “all”, just “the people”, which could be a few, as a token of the rest.

Heb. 10:10  “we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.”

“All” has the same meaning as that found in the note under Heb. 7:27  (Dr. Kent, page 190). Also, notice Heb. 10:12, 14, where it says “for all time”.

Heb. 12:8  “of which all have become partakers, ”

Does “all” mean everyone inclusively in the world?  No!  It means “all of God’s true children” are called upon to be partakers of suffering/discipline at some time or other – Dr. Kent, page 263; Dr. Vincent, page 1165; Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 810; Dr. Wuest, page 219; Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, page 1424; and Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, page 1438 of their respective commentaries.

Heb. 12:14  “Pursue peace with all men…”

“All”, here, means “all believers” as the context (Heb. 12:12-13, 16) warrants – Dr. Wuest, page 223; Dr. Kent, page 266; and Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, page 1424. “All” believers you know of or meet or interact with, in particular.

Heb. 13:4  “Let marriage be held in honor among all, ”

All people inclusively?  Not in this context (see Heb. 13:1). Rather, it refers to all the readers of this letter (i.e., believers who get this letter) – Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, page 1426, and Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 811 of their respective commentaries.

Heb. 13:24  “Greet all of your leaders and all the saints.”

“All” the saints in the world?  No!  As Dr. Kent, on page 295, states “all the saints” refers to “the Christians making up the Hebrew Christian readership of this letter.”

James 1:2  “Consider it all joy, my brethren, when you encounter various trials, ”

Does this mean that the only joy there is is in trials, that, all joy is to be found only in trials?  No!  As Dr. D. Hiebert, on page 71 of The Epistle of James, states, “all” means “unmixed or “pure”.

Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 820; Dr. A. Robertson, page 35 of Studies in the Epistle of James; and Dr. Vincent, on page 344 of Word Studies in the New Testament, Vol. 1, agree that “all” means “wholly”, “without admixture of sorrow”.

James 1:5  “God, who gives to all men generously…”

Does this mean everybody inclusively in the world?  According to the context, and as Dr. Hiebert, on page 81, states, “all” is “not limited to a favored few, but is available to all who ask”, all believers, as God doesn’t hear the sinner/unbeliever (Jn. 9:31; Prov. 15:29).

1 Pet. 3:8  “To sum up, let all be harmonious, sympathetic, brotherly, kindhearted…”

Does “all” this mean every single person in the world, or just the people Peter is writing? As Dr. A. Stibbs, on page 128 of his Tyndale New Testament Commentaries – The First Epistle General of Peter, states, “all” refers to “Christians”. This is obvious from the context (1 Pet. 3:7, 9).

Or, as Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, on page 849, state, “Peter now addressed all his readers” (1 Pet. 1:1).

1 Pet. 3:18  “For Christ also died for sins once for all, ”

For all people, all sins, or all time?  As Dr. Robertson, on page 116 of Word Pictures in the New Testament, Vol. 6, shows, “all” refers to time (Heb. 9:28). Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 851, and Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1477 of their respective commentaries agree. It’s a once for all time, never to be repeated event/act.

1 Pet. 4:7  “The end of all things is at hand;”

Everything inclusively?  No!  It refers to our earthly lives and to this present age, which is to end at Christ’s second coming and His accompanying judgment (James 5:8; 1 Pet. 4:5). Dr. Stibbs, page 153, and Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, on page 1479 agree.

2 Pet. 1:5  “applying all diligence…”

As Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, page 1487, state, “all” means “all possible”.

2 Pet. 3:4  “For(ever) since the fathers fell asleep, all continues as it was from the beginning of creation.”

“All”, here, means “all things in the natural world”, as Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, page 1492; Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 875; and Dr. M. Green, on page 127 of his Tyndale New Testament Commentaries – The Second Epistle of Peter and the Epistle of Jude, state.

2 Pet. 3:9  “is patient toward you, not wishing for any to perish, but for all to come to…”

All people in the world inclusively or all God’s chosen?  As Matthew Henry, on page 1338, states, “all” refers to God’s “own people whom He has chosen before the foundation of the world, many of whom are not as yet converted.” This makes sense in light of the context (“you” in 2 Pet. 3:9 refers to the believers Peter wrote, 2 Pet. 1:1, as does “beloved” in 2 Pet. 3:1, 8, and the “second letter, 3:1, refers to the people in the first letter, which are God’s chosen, 1 Pet. 1:1). Also, see 1 Thes. 2:13; Eph. 1:4-5, 11; and Rom. 8:29-30.

1 Jn. 2:16  “For all that is in the world…”

“All” obviously doesn’t mean every single thing in the world, nor to any material thing in the world, but rather refers to 3 areas of mankind’s sinful actions or attitudes, as the rest of the verse describes/explains.

1 Jn. 2:27  “but as His anointing teaches you about all things…”

Would the Holy Spirit teach these believers all there was to know about math, science, music, art, etc.?  No!  “All things” refers to “all things essential to salvation, which is the point under discussion (1 Jn. 2:22-25), as Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, page 1503, state. Also, see Jn. 14:26; 15:26; 16:12-15.

3 Jn. 1:2  “Beloved, I pray in all things/respects you may prosper and be in good health, ”

Does this include in sinning?  Obviously not!  “All things/respects” refers to Gaius’ “public and social work” (Dr. B. Westcott, page 236, The Epistles of John) or his “business” (Dr. R. Ward, page 69, The Epistles of John and Jude).

Jude 1:3  “the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints.”

“All” refers to time, once for all time, final, “fixed, non-repeatable” faith or doctrines of Christianity – Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, page 1488; Drs. Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown, page 1518; and Dr. Vincent, page 338 of Vol. 1 of their respective commentaries.

Jude 1:5  “though you know all things once for all, ”

“All things” refers to the Christian faith or Gospel (Drs. Pheiffer and Harrison, page 1488) that Jude’s readers knew. Or, it refers to “the context in which Jude is speaking” – Dr. Wuest, page 239 of Vol. 4, “Jude”.

Jude 1:15  “judgment upon all,”

“All” refers to the wicked/unbelievers who are living on the earth at Christ’s 2nd coming – 2 Thes. 1:7-10 – Drs. Walvoord and Zuck, page 922; Dr. Green, page 177; Dr. Ward, page 90; and Matthew Henry, page 1374).